San Diego Management & Monitoring Program


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regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO

MON-RES-SPEC AQUCHR-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.
Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Monitor territory occupancy and reproduction in suitable golden eagle habitat within the MSPA. Identify any threats or disturbance to eagles and provide this information to land managers so that management actions can be taken to reduce impacts from human disturbance and other threats. in progress
RES-2 Capture adult eagles at selected territories and attach GPS-transmitters that track eagle movements to identify important foraging areas and to study movement patterns relative to human activity within a landscape matrix of urban, rural, and undeveloped lands. Determine whether eagles switch territories and mates, document individual mortality, and track emigration or short term movements outside of the MSPA. Determine if there are multiple nesting sites within a territory and identify nest sites that are unstable or vulnerable to loss. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-3 Analyze golden eagle foraging habitat data and develop objectives with criteria for managing open areas (grasslands and suitable areas in coastal sage scrub and chaparral) to conditions preferred by foraging eagles and that support abundant prey (e.g., black-tailed jack rabbits, ground squirrels). unknown
RES-4 Measure eagle behavioral responses to human activity at foraging areas. Identify the intensity and type of human activity that affects foraging behavior. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-5 Use the GPS and behavioral response data to model potential impacts to foraging eagles under different scenarios of human disturbance at important foraging areas. Prepare management recommendations to reduce human impacts on foraging eagles, including alignment of trails, restriction of activities, and educational outreach. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-6 Submit project metadata, datasets, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
Criteria Deadline year
Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study Report with Management Recommendations Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-2 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.
AQUCHR-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.
AQUCHR-4 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.
regional NFO 2021 SO

MGT-PRP-MGTPL AQUCHR-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Prepare a five year plan for maintaining and enhancing golden eagle foraging habitat in grasslands and suitable areas in open coastal sage scrub and chaparral, and for reducing human impacts to foraging eagles. Use the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and modeling results to identify important foraging areas for golden eagles on Conserved Lands in the MSPA. Specify management to reduce human disturbance in important foraging habitat and to manage invasive annual grasses to promote abundant prey, such as California ground squirrels and black-tailed jackrabbit. Include a mechanism for updating the management plan with monitoring results and specific management recommendations from the Comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Prioritize for management, those nest ledges and trees that are in territories where alternative nest sites are limited. Prepare a nest restoration plan for each prioritized unstable nest ledge or vulnerable nest tree in consultation with a qualified golden eagle biologist. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Establish procedures for managing human activities within the nest site protective zone, including rerouting trails, closing trails during the breeding season, educational outreach, and enforcement. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Submit project metadata and Comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan Completed by 2022 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-1 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.
AQUCHR-2 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.
AQUCHR-4 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL

MON-IMP-IMG ATHCUN-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9

Annually inspect artificial and natural burrows and occupied habitat to determine management needs using a regional IMG protocol. The monitoring should include considerations for retrofitting existing artificial burrows with the most current design to maximize fledgling success, removal/closing of burrows at poorly performing sites, and addition of burrows to maximize success.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct regional IMG monitoring protocol survey locations and habitat, assess status, and quantify potential threats. available for implementation
IMP-2 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. available for implementation
IMP-3 Submit monitoring and management data to the regional MSP web portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with management recommendations 2021
regional NFO 2017 SL

MGT-PRP-MGTPL ATHCUN-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9

In 2017, finalize the Burrowing Owl Conservation and Management Plan that includes results from the research study and habitat assessments and recommendations for the establishment of at least two nodes and enhancement of existing occurrences to ensure persistence on Conserved Lands and establishment of a captive breeding population as a source for burrowing owls.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult with the Burrowing Owl Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers and other stakeholders to gather input into prioritized management actions. completed
PRP-2 Submit project metadata and Burrowing Owl Conservation and Management Plant to the MSP Web Portal.
Criteria Deadline year
Burrowing Owl Management Plan Completed in 2017 2021
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL

MGT-IMP-MGTPL ATHCUN-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9

Beginning in 2017, implement highest priority management actions from the Burrowing Owl Conservation and Management Plan.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented from the Burrowing Owl Conservation and Management Plan 2021
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL

MON-IMP-MGTPL ATHCUN-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9

Beginning in 2017, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for western burrowing owl on Conserved Lands.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit monitoring data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring Completed and Data and Report Submitted within one year of management actions 2021
regional NFO 2019 SO

MON-SURV-SPEC CIRCYA-1

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

In 2019, conduct a survey for northern harrier and other associated raptors to document the harrier's current distribution and abundance and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites. Prepare site-specific management recommendations based on survey results and habitat assessments.
Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Submit monitoring data and management recommendations to MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Northern Harrier Surveys and Reports Completed by 2020 2021
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO

MON-IMP-IMG CIRCYA-2

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

From 2017 to 2021, annually inspect the existing nesting occurrences of northern harrier, taking precautions to avoid disturbance, to identify necessary management actions in order to support the expansion of the occurrence to self sustaining levels.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct regional IMG monitoring protocol survey locations and habitat, assess status, and quantify potential threats. Available for implementation
IMP-2 Based upon threat evaluation, determine if routine management or more intensive management is warranted. Available for implementation
IMP-3 Submit monitoring data and management recommendations to MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with management recommendations 2021
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO

MGT-IMP-IMG CIRCYA-3

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

From 2017-2021, perform routine management activities such as protecting nesting occurrences from disturbance through fencing, signage, and enforcement.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform management activities protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing, signage, and enforcement. Available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
regional NFO 2020 SO

MGT-PRP-MGTPL CIRCYA-4

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

In 2020, prepare a management plan for northern harrier that prioritizes management actions to protect nesting sites from disturbance and enhances habitat using data from annual IMG monitoring.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Prioritize management actions, focusing on reducing threats and expanding occurrences in areas most likely to remain viable over the long-term in the context of future land development. Available for implementation
PRP-2 Develop a management plan for northern harrier that prioritizes management actions for the next five years. Available for implementation
PRP-3 Submit management plan to MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Management Plan for Northern Harrier prepared by 2021 2021
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SO

MGT-IMP-MGTPL CIRCYA-5

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2021, implement the highest priority management actions for northern harrier on Conserved Lands.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Management actions to be determined by the management plan. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project data and management actions to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Management actions implemented for Northern Harrier 2021
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SO

MON-IMP-MGTPL CIRCYA-6

Management units: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2021, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for northern harrier on Conserved Lands
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit monitoring data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring completed and data and report submited within 1 year of management actions being completed. 2021
regional NFO 2019, 2020 SL

MON-RES-SPEC TAXTAX-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to: determine the locations of American badgers in western San Diego County (see occurrence table); to assess and analyze occurrence status, identify and characterize suitable habitat, and evaluate threats; to record movement patterns to determine the risk of direct mortality from existing and planned future roads; and to examine ways to improve badger connectivity between IMAs and reduce mortality (e.g. culverts, bridges, fencing, etc.). Use the study results to prepare specific management recommendations for badger habitat management and for connectivity enhancement within the MSPA.
Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Conduct badger surveys to determine spatial and temporal distribution of badgers, assess habitat, and collect threat covariate data. in progress
RES-2 Conduct badger information outreach with hotline for the public to report badger detections. unknown
RES-3 Utilize species experts and veterinarians (through workshops or other collaborative means) to develop techniques to safely attach satellite transmitter packages to track the movement of American badger. in progress
RES-4 Use satellite transmitters and other methods as appropriate to examine the movement patterns of badgers in San Diego County and to determine high risk areas for badgers crossing roads and priority areas for fencing and under crossings. High priority areas for the study should include areas within or adjacent to badger IMAs where traffic volume is anticipated to increase in the next 5-10 years. The study results should include recommendations for locations and types of structures (including fencing) needed to allow safe movement of badger.
RES-5 All badgers captured as part of studies should have their rodenticide levels evaluated and genetic samples collected. in progress
RES-6 Submit project metadata, datasets, and reports including results, analyses, and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
In 2020, Completed Badger Habitat and Connectivity Study Report 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see Occurrence Table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see occurrence table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-3 MON-PRP-MONPL Beginning in 2020, use data and recommendations from the research and genetic studies to develop a long-term American Badger Monitoring Plan in the MSPA to efficiently and periodically monitor the distribution, abundance, mortality and connectivity of the badger population using non-invasive and cost-efficient monitoring methods, such as the collection of scat for genetic analysis, tracking and burrow surveys. The plan should include specific monitoring objectives, sampling frame, sampling design, methods and analytic approach.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SL

MON-PRP-MONPL TAXTAX-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2020, use data and recommendations from the research and genetic studies to develop a long-term American Badger Monitoring Plan in the MSPA to efficiently and periodically monitor the distribution, abundance, mortality and connectivity of the badger population using non-invasive and cost-efficient monitoring methods, such as the collection of scat for genetic analysis, tracking and burrow surveys. The plan should include specific monitoring objectives, sampling frame, sampling design, methods and analytic approach.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Submit project metadata and American Badger Monitoring Plan to MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
In 2021, Completed American Badger Monitoring Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
TAXTAX-1 MON-RES-SPEC In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to: determine the locations of American badgers in western San Diego County (see occurrence table); to assess and analyze occurrence status, identify and characterize suitable habitat, and evaluate threats; to record movement patterns to determine the risk of direct mortality from existing and planned future roads; and to examine ways to improve badger connectivity between IMAs and reduce mortality (e.g. culverts, bridges, fencing, etc.). Use the study results to prepare specific management recommendations for badger habitat management and for connectivity enhancement within the MSPA.
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see Occurrence Table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see occurrence table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-4 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Beginning in 2020, use results and recommendations from the research and genetic studies to develop a 2022-2026 comprehensive American Badger Management Plan in the MSPA to enhance connectivity within and among IMAs (see Table of Occurrences) and to manage grasslands to improve habitat quality and prey availability. The plan should identify high priority areas for badger management and provide site-specific management recommendations and guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SL

MGT-PRP-MGTPL TAXTAX-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2020, use results and recommendations from the research and genetic studies to develop a 2022-2026 comprehensive American Badger Management Plan in the MSPA to enhance connectivity within and among IMAs (see Table of Occurrences) and to manage grasslands to improve habitat quality and prey availability. The plan should identify high priority areas for badger management and provide site-specific management recommendations and guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Use research results to develop specific recommendations to improve road crossing infrastructure, such as culverts, bridges and fencing, to enhance connectivity and reduce mortality risk. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Analyze habitat assessments and information from other studies (e.g., western burrowing owl and California ground squirrel BMPs) to prepare specific management recommendations land managers can take to enhance availability of prey species, particularly California ground squirrels, and improve habitat quality for badgers. Identify opportunities to conduct grassland management for badgers in conjunction with habitat management for other MSP species, such as golden eagles. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Submit project metadata and American Badger Management Plan to MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
In 2021, Completed American Badger Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
TAXTAX-1 MON-RES-SPEC In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to: determine the locations of American badgers in western San Diego County (see occurrence table); to assess and analyze occurrence status, identify and characterize suitable habitat, and evaluate threats; to record movement patterns to determine the risk of direct mortality from existing and planned future roads; and to examine ways to improve badger connectivity between IMAs and reduce mortality (e.g. culverts, bridges, fencing, etc.). Use the study results to prepare specific management recommendations for badger habitat management and for connectivity enhancement within the MSPA.
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see Occurrence Table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2019-2020, continue the study begun in 2014 to determine the population genetics of American badger in western San Diego County (see occurrence table), within the range of T. t. Jeffersoni, to determine the extent of connectivity between badger occurrences and if possible, the number and relationship of existing individuals, and use this information to determine where to prioritize connectivity enhancements and whether or not existing occurrences of American badger are self-sustaining.
TAXTAX-3 MON-PRP-MONPL Beginning in 2020, use data and recommendations from the research and genetic studies to develop a long-term American Badger Monitoring Plan in the MSPA to efficiently and periodically monitor the distribution, abundance, mortality and connectivity of the badger population using non-invasive and cost-efficient monitoring methods, such as the collection of scat for genetic analysis, tracking and burrow surveys. The plan should include specific monitoring objectives, sampling frame, sampling design, methods and analytic approach.