Goal: Maintain or enhance existing Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in chaparral, grassland, oak woodland, southern interior cypress forests, and vernal pool vegetation communities.
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
|IMP-1||Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted.||some occurrences are in progress|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
|IMP-1||Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover.||available for implementation||Otay Mesa Rare Plants|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||available for implementation||Otay Mesa Rare Plants|
|Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
|SURV-1||At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling.||On hold|
|SURV-2||Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||On hold|
|Surveys and Report Completed by 2020||2021|
Management units: 3
Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
|IMP-1||Conduct invasive plant control and distribute seed to establish new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences.||in progress|
|IMP-2||Implement seed augmentation using seed collected and bulked by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research.||in progress|
|IMP-3||Submit project metadata, management datasets and report to the MSP Web Portal.||in progress|
|By 2020, 2 New Occurrences of Orcutt's Brodiaea Established and Report Submitted||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-2||Design the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-3||The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-4||Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007).||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-5||Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-6||Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
|IMP-1||Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection.||some occurrences are in progress|
|IMP-2||Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt's brodiaea from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-2||Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-4||Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's brodiaea that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-5||Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|By 2025, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined||2021|
Otay Mesa Rare Plants
The Otay Mesa Rare Plants Project will improve the conservation status of several of San Diego County's rarest plants on important conserved lands in Otay Mesa. The Project includes seed bulking for two high-priority Management Strategic Plan (MSP) plant species and direct restoration of five MSP plants with seeding, planting, and maintenance. Seeding, planting, and maintenance for the MSP plants will be conducted as part of two separate habitat restoration projects, one to restore vernal pools and maritime succulent scrub and another to restore maritime succulent scrub and native grasslands.
Proctor Valley Vernal Pools and Uplands Habitat Restoration Project
The Proctor Valley Vernal Pool and Uplands Habitat Restoration Project will complete restoration of 19 acres of vernal pools and coastal sage scrub in Proctor Valley on the City of San Diego's Otay Lakes Cornerstone Lands, a biological core area under the San Diego MSCP. The Project includes restoration of vernal pools and coastal sage scrub habitat and establishment of occurrences of two high-priority Management Strategic Plan (MSP) plants with seed collection, seed bulking, propagation, planting and seeding, and maintenance. The Project also includes restoration of habitat specific to the needs of several MSP animal species through seeding and planting of host and nest plants, construction of artificial burrows, and other measures. Project partially funded by SANDAG TransNet EMP Land Management Grant #5001972 and #5004955.
Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Monitoring 2014-2026
From 2014-2026, a Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan (MSP Roadmap) monitoring objective for 30 rare plant species is to inspect occurrences to determine management needs. The inspect and manage (IMG) objective is implemented to document the status of rare plant occurrences and assess habitats and threats to develop specific management recommendations. IMG monitoring is implemented by a combination of land managers and contracted biologists in coordination with the SDMMP. Available rare plant data is posted below. New annual updates are typically posted in March. Based upon an evaluation of these data, a 2014-2026 monitoring schedule has been developed for the 30 rare plant species (attached below). Coordinating data collection across the region allows analyses of species and population trends over time and provides a better understanding of the association between habitat and threat covariates and population dynamics.
Valley Fire Rare Plant Discovery Surveys
A project between the SDMMP and US Forest Service to establish and prioritize survey areas on Conserved Lands within the perimeter of the 2020 Valley Fire to document whether historic occurrences are extant and to discover new occurrences for 18 rare plant species. In 2022, AECOM and Conservation Biology Institute botanists surveyed areas for 18 target rare plant species and mapped the spatial extent of each new occurrence, counted or estimated the occurrence population size, and collected voucher specimens. They also photographed each new occurrence from a georeferenced location that captured a representative view of the occurrence. Botanists created a species list for the areas surveyed within the Valley Fire footprint. These areas included locations where rare plants were detected and mapped and negative data point areas where rare plants were not detected. In 2023, botanists shall again conduct surveys on suitable habitat on USFS lands burned in the 2020 Valley Fire. Results from these surveys should lead to a greater understanding of post-fire rare plant composition. In 2023, botanists may see species that did not emerge in the first year of surveys, and species found in the first year of surveys may have expanded their range. The 18 rare plant species included in the surveys are: San Diego thornmint (Acanthomintha ilicifolia), Marvin's allium (Allium marvinii), Western spleenwort (Asplenium vespertinum), Deane's milkvetch (Astragalus deanei), Encinitas baccharis (Baccharis vanessae), San Diego goldenstar (Bloomeria clevelandii), Orcutt's brodiaea (Brodiaea orcuttii), Lakeside ceanothus (Ceanothus cyaneus), San Miguel savory (Clinopodium chandleri), Variegated dudleya (Dudleya variegata), Mission Canyon bluecup (Githopsis diffusa filicaulis), Ramona horkelia (Horkelia truncata), Heart-leaved pitcher sage (Lepechinia cardiophylla), Felt-leaved pitcher sage (Monardella hypoleuca lanata), Chaparral nolina (Nolina cismontana), Gander's ragwort (Packera ganderi), Moreno currant (Ribes canthariforme), and Parry's tetracoccus (Tetracoccus dioicus).
|File name||Lead Author||Year||Type|
|2010-11 Baseline Survey Report for the Northern San Ysidro, McMillin, and Little Cedar Canyon Parcels of the the Otay Ranch Preserve||O'Meara, Cailin; Sundberg, J.R.; Bennett, Anna; Dodero, Mark||2012||report|
|County of San Diego MSCP Monitoring Summary Report January 1998 - June 2007||County of San Diego||2007||report|
|Final Report: Escondido Creek (Elfin Forest) Invasive Plant Control||2020||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2014 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2014||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2015 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2015||report|
|Otay Mesa Rare Plants Final Report||2022||report|
|Rarest Plants II Project Final Report||2022||report|
|Summary Results of Rare Plant Field Monitoring City of San Diego MSCP||2009||fact sheet|
Reported in Riverside County, San Diego County, Baja California [1,2,3]. Also reported as occurring in San Bernardino County and Orange County . Elevation range 30-1692m . Occurs in several MUâ€™s in the MSPA: MU2 (e.g., Rose Canyon Open Space), MU3 (e.g., Otay Ranch Preserve), MU4 (e.g., Boulder Oaks Preserve, Mission Trails Regional Park); MU6 (e.g., Carroll Canyon Vernal Pool Preserve, Del Mar Mesa), MU7 (e.g., Poinsettia Place); MU8 (e.g., Mt. Olympus Preserve; ).
Preferred habitat consists of vernally moist grasslands, mima mound topography, and the periphery of vernal pools . Occasionally found in grasslands near streams [1,2]. B. orcuttii reported on soils of old terraces and alluvial fans which are characterized by gravelly with or without a hardpan . On Otay Mesa, soils include Stockpen gravelly loam; at Mira Mesa, Redding gravelly loam . At vernal pool locations usually grows in swales leading into more developed pools and on the lower flanks of small mima mounds .
Brodiaea previously assigned to other plant families (Liliaceae, Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae; ), currently Family Themidaceae [1,8]. Phylogenetic analysis supports monophyletic Family Themidaceae . One of ~18 species of the Brodiaea, a genus mostly endemic to California, with several undescribed taxa and hybrids under study . Hybridizes with thread-leaved brodiaea (Brodiaea filifolia ; ). Non-native honeybees, which tend to be species-generalist, may have increased the potential for hybridization (references in USFWS 1998). B. orcutti has many similarities with B. filifolia but has different stamen characters so is not derived from B. filifolia .
Brodiaea are perennials arising from underground corms (fleshy, contracted stems) each growing season [6,7]. Corms act like true bulbs by storing nutrients and water through the dormant season. Dormancy begins in early summer when the corm has become an enlarged organ filled with starch; the starch allows the plant to being rapid growth in fall when dormancy is broken . The corms begin growing after the first significant fall rains; the roots elongate rapidly; the leaves also begin to elongate and continue to do so slowly throughout the winter. The new corm of mature plants often produces 2-15 smaller cormlets adjacent to it. Brodiaea grown from seed require 2-3 years or more before flowering occurs. An experimental burn conducted in 1986 in vernal pools at Miramar Naval Air Station showed that this species increased in burned pools compared to control sites .
Bell-shaped flowers are typically violet in color; blooming period April-July . The members of Brodiaea can be thought of as early summer bloomers with the flowering period generally lasting 2-3 weeks .
Brodiaea are self-incompatible (i.e., only pollination between individuals produces seed . Lepidoptera and Diptera are frequent insect visitors on Brodiaea (consume nectar and do not carry pollen), whereas Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were observed to be important pollinators (collect pollen for food; ). Small, narrowly egg-shaped capsules develop containing numerous tiny black seeds which are dispersed when wind rattles the capsules .
Serious threats posed by development, foot traffic, grazing, non-native plants, military activities, vehicles, road construction, road maintenance, and dumping . Threatened by competition from non-native plant taxa in areas where soil disturbance favors European species of plants .
Generally, only surveys done during the blooming period or immediately following can determine the presence of this species .
 Reiser, C.H. 1994. Rare Plants of San Diego County. Aquafir Press, Imperial Beach, CA. Available online: http://sandiego.sierraclub.org/rareplants/
 Pires, J.C. and R.R. Preston. 2013. Brodiaea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16150, accessed on Jun 23 2014.
 CNPS, Rare Plant Program. 2014. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v8-02). California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. Website http://www.rareplants.cnps.org [accessed 23 June 2014].
 MSP-MOM. 2014. Management Strategic Plan Master Occurrence Matrix. http://sdmmp.com/reports_and_products/Reports_Products_MainPage.asp
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for Four Southwestern California Plants from Vernal Wetlands and Clay Soils. Federal Register 63: 54975-54994. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-10-13/pdf/98-26861.pdf
 Niehaus, T.F. 1971. A Biosystematic Study of the Genus Brodiaea (Amaryllidaceae). University of California Press, Los Angeles, London.
 Smith, N. 1997. Growing natives, Brodiaeasâ€“Part 1. Fremontia 25(4):28-30.
 Fay, M.F. and M.W. Chase 1996. Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and Recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45:441-451.
 Pires, J.C. and K.J. Sytsma. 2002. A phylogenetic evaluation of a biosystematic framework: Brodiaea and related petaloid monocots (Themidaceae). American Journal of Botany 89:1342-1352.
 County of Riverside. 2003. Western Riverside County Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP). Volume II- Section A MSHCP Conservation Area description. Prepared for: County Of Riverside Transportation and Land Management Agency, P.O. Box 1605, 4080 Lemon Street, Riverside, CA 92502-1605. Prepared by: Dudek & Associates, Inc., 605 Third Street, Encinitas, California 92024. Approved June 17, 2003.
 Cox, G. and J. Austin. 1990. Impacts of a prescribed burn on vernal pool vegetation at Miramar Naval Air Station, San Diego, California. Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Sciences 89(2): 67-85.