Goal: Maintain or enhance existing Orcutt's spineflower occurrences to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in chaparral vegetation communities.
Management units: 6, 7
Beginning in 2017, conduct annual surveys of all Orcutt's spineflower.
|IMP-1||Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted.||in progress|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's spineflower occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
|IMP-1||Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover.||in progress||Otay Mesa Rare Plants|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||in progress||Otay Mesa Rare Plants|
|Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
In 2017, continue efforts begun in 2015 to survey historic Orcutt's spineflower locations to: determine current occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
|SURV-1||At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling.||In progress|
|SURV-2||Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||In progress|
|Baseline Surveys and Report Completed by 2018||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
In 2017, continue BMPs initiated in 2015 to establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower.
|IMP-1||Establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt||in progress|
|IMP-2||Use BMPs for site preparation (Bauder 2010a,b). Sites with ice plant or Acacia shrubs should be cleared of these invasive plants and duff and then watched for at least 2 years with suitable growing conditions to determine if there are viable spineflower||in progress|
|IMP-3||Maintain newly established occurrences so that there is <20% invasive non-native absolute cover, minimal encroachment of native plants (based upon standards used at the Point Loma Naval Base), and no ground disturbance from erosion or trampling.||in progress|
|IMP-4||Use the seed collection and bulking plan to determine seed sources and timing and amount of seeding.||in progress|
|IMP-5||Submit project metadata, monitoring and management data to MSP web portal.||in progress|
|4 New Occurrences of Orcutt's Spineflower Established by 2018||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's spineflower section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan.||On hold|
|PRP-2||Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences.||On hold|
|PRP-3||The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development.||On hold|
|PRP-4||Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007).||On hold|
|PRP-5||Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates.||On hold|
|PRP-6||Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||On hold|
|By 2020, Completed Section for Orcutt's Spineflower in MSP Seed Collection Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
|IMP-1||Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection.||waiting for precedent action|
|IMP-2||Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|By 2022, =1 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for Orcutt's Spineflower from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.||on hold|
|PRP-2||Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's spineflower occurrences.||on hold|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||on hold|
|PRP-4||Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's spineflower that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets.||on hold|
|PRP-5||Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||on hold|
|By 2020, Completed Section for Orcutt's Spineflower in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
Beginning in 2020, begin implementation of the highest priority management actions for Orcutt's spineflower identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|By 2022, =1 High Priority Management Action Initiated for Orcutt's spineflower from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 6, 7
Monitor the effectiveness of highest priority management actions implemented for Orcutt's spineflower.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined||2021|
Rare Plant Management and Seed Plan
MSP Roadmap 2019 and 2020 objectives include developing a â€œManagement Strategic Plan Framework Rare Plant Management Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego Countyâ€ and a â€œManagement Strategic Plan Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego Countyâ€. These plans include general sections with background information and rationale for prioritizing and developing management recommendations with separate chapters and specific recommendations for priority species. In 2019, general framework sections were developed along with species chapters for San Diego thornmint, Nuttallâ€™s acmispon, salt marsh birdâ€™s-beak and Otay tarplant (CBI, AECOM and SDMMP 2020 a,b). In 2020, chapters will be developed for short-leaved dudleya, Orcuttâ€™s spineflower, and willowy monardella. These plans are developed with input and guidance provided by the Rare Plant Management Group Steering Committee and species working groups. Participants in these groups include landowners and managers, scientists, species experts, restoration specialists, seed collection and banking practitioners, and representatives from non-profit organizations and wildlife agencies. These plans are based on the latest scientific information for species on habitat relationships, ecology, genetics, seed collection guidelines, and best management practices. Occurrence-specific management recommendations are based on working group input and multiple years of Inspect and Manage monitoring data on population status, habitat associations and threats. These are living documents as new species chapters are added as they are developed and existing chapters are revised when new information becomes available or management actions are completed, and new recommendations are needed.
Rarest Plants Project: San Diego Thornmint, Short-leaved Dudleya, Orcutt's Spineflower, Orcutt's Brodiaea, and California Orcutt Grass
The initial goal of this project was to significantly improve the conservation status of three of the rarest and most imperiled plants in San Diego County: Orcuttâ€™s spineflower, San Diego thornmint, and short-leaved dudleya. Proposed work included stabilizing and increasing the size of existing populations, establishing new populations of Orcuttâ€™s spineflower, and providing stewardship. A TransNet EMP grant (#5001767) funded the development and implementation of a conservation strategy that included seed bulking and the establishment of additional populations of Orcuttâ€™s spineflower to help minimize the risk of extinction. SANDAG EMP funds and a Section 6 grant from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife funded GIS mapping of suitable habitat soils and population surveys at remaining natural historic documented occurrences and in newly mapped suitable habitat on conserved lands off the Point Loma Navy Base. Through an additional round of TransNet EMP grant funding (#5004954), the project grew to include Orcutt's brodiaea and California Orcutt grass for the Otay Mesa Rare Plants Project. Project activities included seed bulking for MSP plant species and restoration of vernal pools & maritime succulent scrub & establishment of MSP plant occurrences. One last round of grant funding (#5005511) focused on improving the conservation status of Orcutt's spineflower (SL); short-leaved dudleya (SL), and Orcutt's brodiaea (SO). The project focused on seed bulking for all three species; control of invasive weeds for all three species; establishment of one new Orcutt's spineflower occurrence; supplementation of population numbers and stewardship management to maintain approximately sixteen existing occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower and one existing occurrence each of short-leaved dudleya and Orcutt's brodiaea.
|File name||Lead Author||Year||Type|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2015 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2015||report|
|Management Strategic Plan Framework Rare Plant Management Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||2021||report|
|Management Strategic Plan Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||2021||report|
|Orcutt's Spineflower Rare Plant Survey Results||Rocks, Jim||2015||report|
|Rare Plants Project 10th Quarterly Report (FINAL)||2016||report|
|Rarest Plants II Project Final Report||2022||report|
|Rarest Plants Project: Orcutt's Spineflower||Hogan, Dave||2016||powerpoint presentation|
|Recording - June 2023 SDMMP Management and Monitoring Coordination Meeting||Sharma, Jyotsna||2023||recording|
|Results of Orcutts Spineflower Mapping and Population Surveys||2015||report|
Coastal San Diego County from Torrey Pines south to Point Loma [1,2,3].
Within the MSPA, Orcuttâ€™s spineflower was until recently known only from Torrey Pines Extension in MU7 and previously was extant at Oakcrest Park in Encinitas. The Chaparral Conservancy identified suitable habitat and conducted surveys in 2015 with the help of volunteer botanists. Six new populations were found on Conserved Lands in the vicinity of Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, and Pacific Highlands Ranch . There are also four occurrences outside the MSPA at Point Loma Naval Base.
Sandy soils in openings in southern maritime chaparral on coastal bluffs within 5 km of the Pacific Ocean [1,2,5,6].
Overall low genetic diversity among Point Loma populations, which exhibit some within patch diversity, a high degree of selfing, and limited seed dispersal .
Annual dicot herb. Large annual fluctuations in population size attributed to pattern and amount of rainfall and number of viable seeds banked in the soil . Removal of ice plant and duff has led to the appearance of Orcuttâ€™s spineflower, indicating seeds may live in soil for decades. Capable of selfing, the importance of outcrossing to maximizing seed set is unknown .
The phenology of germination and seedling establishment of this annual plant depends on the timing and amount of rainfall .
Little known about pollination or seed dispersal. Potential for Argentine ants to out-compete native insect pollinators ? Unknown whether genes disperse by pollen, seeds or both.
Invasive non-native plants, especially ice plant (Carpobrotus spp.). Loss of sandy openings due to native plant encroachment in the absence of a natural fire regime [1,2,7]. Trampling, irrigation runoff, and drainage outflow from culverts causing erosion. Low genetic diversity . Small number of occurrences with large annual fluctuations in population size makes species vulnerable to demographic and environmental stochasticity and to loss from a catastrophic disturbance [2,7].
Special considerations: This species is considered to have reduced potential for recovery given that there are few populations, little remaining suitable habitat and a high risk of threats . BMPs have been developed by the U.S. Navy to effectively expand populations and to establish new populations [6,7]. Recommendations are to eliminate non-native invasive plants and duff from areas with suitable habitat to see if there may be re-emergence of this species in new locations, given that seeds are likely to be long-lived [1,6,7]. Before seed supplementation is used for restoration, invasive non-native plants should be managed for at least two years of suitable growing conditions to determine if there are viable seeds remaining in soil.
 Bauder, E. 2000. Recovery and Management of Orcuttâ€™s Spineflower (Chorizanthe orcuttiana) Final Report. Prepared for the California Department of Fish and Game.
 USFWS. 2007. Chorizanthe orcuttiana (Orcuttâ€™s spineflower) Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Prepared by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife Office.
 MSP-MOM. 2013. Management Strategic Plan Master Occurrence Matrix. http://www.sdmmp.com/Home.aspx
 D. Hogan. 2015. Email on 5-8-15 reporting new populations of Orcuttâ€™s spineflower found during April 2015 surveys with link to KPBS radio feature on the survey results.
 Reiser, C. 1994. Rare Plants of San Diego County. http://sandiego.sierraclub.org/rareplants/ Accessed 2012 and 2013.
 Bauder, E. T., J. Sakrison and J. Snapp-Cook. 2010b. Chorizanthe orcuttiana (Orcuttâ€™s Spineflower) Final Report (2010). Prepared for Coastal IPT NAVFACSW and Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southwest. Contract #: N68711-02-LT-00041, Department of the Navy.
 Bauder, E. T., J. Sakrison and H. D. Truesdale. 2010a. Chorizanthe orcuttiana (Orcuttâ€™s Spineflower) Final Report. Prepared for Coastal IPT NAVFACSW and Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southwest. Contract #: N68711-02-LT-00041, Department of the Navy.
 T. Oberbauer. 2013. Comment on Draft Management Strategic Plan version 01-07-13.