San Diego Management & Monitoring Program

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San Diego thorn-mint Acanthomintha ilicifolia

Goal: Maintain large populations, enhance small populations, and establish new populations of San Diego thornmint or pollinator habitat to buffer against environmental stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and promote connectivity, thereby enhancing resilience within and among MUs over the long-term (>100 years) in native habitats.

Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO


Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for San Diego thornmint to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Global's Native Plant Seed Bank
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Global's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =2 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for San Diego thornmint from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.