Goal: Maintain or enhance existing salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences and create salt marsh to establish new occurrences to reduce risk of population loss to rising sea levels and to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in salt marsh vegetation communities.
Management units: 1
Beginning in 2017, annually inspect salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
|IMP-1||Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted.||some occurrences are in progress|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1
Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
|IMP-1||Perform as needed routine management activities, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover.||available for implementation|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||available for implementation|
|Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1
In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing to enhance existing occurrences and establish new occurrences.
|RES-1||Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences in the MSPA.||In progress|
|RES-2||Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses.||In progress|
|RES-3||Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for salt marsh bird's-beak.||In progress|
|RES-4||Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||In progress|
|Genetic Study with Management Recommendations Completed in 2017||2021|
|Threat Name||Threat Code|
|Loss of connectivity||LOSCON|
Management units: 1
in 2018, develop models predicting habitat suitability under future climate scenarios and combine the habitat models with projected increases in sea level and urban development to evaluate and prioritize sites for establishing new occurrences of salt marsh bird's-beak. Formulate management recommendations to reduce risk and increase persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak populations under changing conditions of climate and land use.
|DEV-1||Work with land managers, species experts, scientists and other stakeholders to identify opportunities to manage for long-term persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak under changing climate and land use conditions.||On hold|
|DEV-2||Submit project metadata, models, data layers and report with management recommendation to the MSP Web Portal.||On hold|
|Modeling and Management Recommendations Completed by 2019||2021|
Management units: 1
Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-2||Prepare the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-3||The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-4||Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007).||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-5||Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-6||Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|By 2019, Completed Salt Marsh Bird's-beak Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 1
From 2017-2019, collect salt marsh bird's-beak seed for conservation banking. In 2019, begin implementing high priority actions for salt marsh bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
|IMP-1||Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|IMP-2||Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|By 2022, =2 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for Salt Marsh Bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 1
In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-2||Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-4||Develop an implementation plan for salt marsh bird's-beak that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-5||Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2019, Completed Salt Marsh Bird's-beak Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 1
In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for salt marsh bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|By 2022, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented for Salt Marsh Bird's-beak from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 1
In 2019, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSPRare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined||2021|
Rare Plant Management and Seed Plan
MSP Roadmap 2019 and 2020 objectives include developing a â€œManagement Strategic Plan Framework Rare Plant Management Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego Countyâ€ and a â€œManagement Strategic Plan Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego Countyâ€. These plans include general sections with background information and rationale for prioritizing and developing management recommendations with separate chapters and specific recommendations for priority species. In 2019, general framework sections were developed along with species chapters for San Diego thornmint, Nuttallâ€™s acmispon, salt marsh birdâ€™s-beak and Otay tarplant (CBI, AECOM and SDMMP 2020 a,b). In 2020, chapters will be developed for short-leaved dudleya, Orcuttâ€™s spineflower, and willowy monardella. These plans are developed with input and guidance provided by the Rare Plant Management Group Steering Committee and species working groups. Participants in these groups include landowners and managers, scientists, species experts, restoration specialists, seed collection and banking practitioners, and representatives from non-profit organizations and wildlife agencies. These plans are based on the latest scientific information for species on habitat relationships, ecology, genetics, seed collection guidelines, and best management practices. Occurrence-specific management recommendations are based on working group input and multiple years of Inspect and Manage monitoring data on population status, habitat associations and threats. These are living documents as new species chapters are added as they are developed and existing chapters are revised when new information becomes available or management actions are completed, and new recommendations are needed.
|File name||Lead Author||Year||Type|
|A Report of Genetic Sample Collections and Curation for Six Rare Plants within the San Diego MSPA San Diego County, California||Mulligan, Margaret||2018||report|
|High-throughput sequencing reveals distinct regional genetic structure among remaining populations of an endangered salt marsh plant in California||Milano, Elizabeth; Mulligan, Margaret; Rebman, Jon; Vandergast, Amy||2020||journal article|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2014 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2014||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2015 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2015||report|
|Management Strategic Plan Framework Rare Plant Management Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||2021||report|
|Management Strategic Plan Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan for Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||2021||report|
|Population Genomic Surveys for Six Rare Plant Species in San Diego County, California||Milano, Elizabeth; Vandergast, Amy||2018||report|
|Recording - February 2023 SDMMP Management and Monitoring Coordination Meeting - Part 2||Vinje, Jessie; Mulligan, Margaret||2023||recording|
|SDNHM 2018 Rare Plant Genetic Sampling Final||2018||report|
|Status of Salt Marsh Birdâ€™s-beak in San Diego County, California and Baja California, Mexico in 2022||Vinje, Jessie; Mulligan, Margaret||2023||powerpoint presentation|
Disjunct coastal salt marshes of southern and central California and adjacent northern Baja California, Mexico . Naturally patchy distributions in sites subject to higher tidal influxes in coastal salt marshes. Considered extant only at Point Mugu in Ventura, County, Tijuana Estuary in San Diego County, and in northern Baja California[2; cited in 1]. Three life history characteristics affect the distribution: (1) annual habit, (2) hemiparasitic mode of nutrition, and (3) the fact that it is a halophyte (a salt tolerant plant) . Within a given marsh, distribution depends upon the local dispersal of its seeds, distribution of potential host plants, and annual environmental conditions.
Eleven occurrences on conserved lands in MU1 including Border Field State Park, Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge, San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, and Tijuana River Valley Regional Park.
FE and CE .
Halophyte (plant tolerating or thriving in alkaline soils) found in coastal salt marshes generally above most tidal flows . Grows with species of Salicornia, Distichlis, Frankenia, Suaeda, and Atriplex in the higher areas . Generally in areas of low rainfall and high evaporation rates, with little or no summer rainfall and highly seasonal stream flows .
Previously Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus in the Scrophulariaceae family but is now in the Orobanchaceae family . Genetic diversity in natural populations is low . Populations are very susceptible to loss of rare alleles through genetic drift and therefore would be susceptible to the loss of the fitness advantages of heterozygosity.
Hemiparasitic annual plant in the Orobanchaceae (broom rape) family that secures its nutrition from host plant .
Bloom period is May-October .
Each flower may produce 10-40 seeds  that can float for up to 50 days . A test of the dispersal pattern of small styrofoam pellets the same weight as the seeds, revealed that tidal flows would indeed deposit the seeds at the upper limits of the debris line and would be coincident with the local distribution [9; cited in 1]. Flowers are self-compatible and are pollinated by various bees including Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus, Anthidium edwardsii, and Melissodes tepida timberlakei [10; cited in 1].
Over 90 percent of coastal salt marshes and tidal freshwater marshes have been affected by agriculture, the salt pond industry, airports, and urban development . While major habitat loss due to development is now unlikely due to the California Coastal Act and the Federal Clean Water Act, restoration projects (e.g. Batiquitos Lagoon, Bolsa Chica wetlands, and San Dieguito Lagoon at Del Mar) have not focused on maintenance of terrain or hydrological characteristics conducive to the zone of coastal salt marsh to which Chloropyron maritimum ssp. maritimum belongs . Habitat may be threatened from changes in hydrological features of a site, including channelization, water diversion, freshwater inflow, or climate changes. Herbivory by the microlepidopteran, salt marsh snout moth (Lipographis fenestrella) in Tijuana Slough NWR has damaged a few occurrences . Larvae of the moth consumes capsules and even unfertilized ovaries, however, a large number of capsules escape attack. Climate change to warmer and dryer conditions could impact pollinator populations, host plant biology, and interactions with current or new threats . Vehicles, road construction, recreational activities, foot traffic, and non-native plants are additional threats .
Relies heavily on ground nesting bees [10; cited in 1] for pollination, making it imperative to preserve adequate nesting grounds . Combinations of life history characteristics and annual environmental conditions may lead to shifts in plant populations or occasional episodes where plants are not present for a time. Likely that if sea level increases, suitable habitat will shift inland and upward in topographic level. Lack of adequate, consistent monitoring, and management likely contributes to the limited success and duration of reintroductions. Additional attempts at reintroduction using up-to-date techniques may be useful. Care must be taken to establish protocols for selection of source populations and permanent records of origin and genetic profile of reintroduced plants. The fact that the highest genetic diversity was found at the two largest populations indicates that care must be taken to insure adequate population sizes to overcome potential negative impacts from genetic drift.
 USFWS. 2009. â€œChloropyron Maritimum Subsp. Maritimum (Cordylanthus Maritimus Subsp. Maritimus) (Salt Marsh Birdâ€™s-Beak) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.â€ Carlsbad, California.
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. 1978. â€œEndangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Five Plants as Endangered Species.â€ Federal Register 43: 44810â€“12.
 CNPS, Rare Plant Program. 2016. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v8-02). California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. http://www.rareplants.cnps.org, accessed 20 September 2016.
 Purer, E. 1942. â€œPlant Ecology of the Coastal Salt Marshlands of San Diego County, California.â€ Ecological Monographs 12: 81â€“111.
 Zedler, J.B, J. Covin, C. Nordby, P. Williams, and J. Boland. 1986. â€œCatastrophic Events Reveal the Dynamic Nature of Salt-Marsh Vegetation in Southern California.â€ Estuaries 91 (1): 75â€“80.
 Helenurm, K., and L.S. Parsons. 1997. â€œGenetic Variation and the Reintroduction of Cordylanthus Maritimus Ssp. Maritimus to Sweetwater Marsh, California.â€ Restoration Ecology 5 (3): 236â€“44.
 Chuang, T.I., and L.C. Heckard. 1993. â€œCordylanthus.â€ In The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California, Hickamn, J, 1027â€“31. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. â€œSalt Marsh Birdâ€™s-Beak (Cordylanthus Maritimus Subsp. Maritimus) Recovery Plan.â€ Portland, OR.
 Dunn, P.V. 1987. â€œThe Taxonomy and Autecology of an Endangered Plant, Salt Marsh Birdâ€™s-Beak (Cordylanthus Maritimus).â€ California State University, Los Angeles.
 Lincoln, P.G. 1985. â€œPollinator Effectiveness and Ecology of Seed Set in Cordylanthus Maritimus Subsp. Maritimus at Point Mugu, California. Unpublished Report Submitted to USFWS.â€ Sacramento, CA.
 Callaway, J., V.T. Parker, M.C. Vasey, and L.M. Schile. 2007. â€œEmerging Issues for the Restoration of Tidal Marsh Ecosystems in the Context of Predicted Climate Change.â€ MadroÃ±o 54 (3): 234â€“48.
 Parsons, L.S., and J.B. Zedler. 1997. â€œFactors Affecting the Reestablishment of an Endangered Annual Plant at a California Salt Marsh.â€ Ecological Applications 7 (1): 253â€“67.