San Diego Management & Monitoring Program


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Thread-leaved brodiaea Brodiaea filifolia

Goal: Maintain or enhance existing Thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in grassland and vernal pool vegetation communities.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2019, 2021 SS

MON-IMP-IMG BROFIL-1

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS

MGT-IMP-IMG BROFIL-2

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
NFO 2017 SS

MON-RES-SPEC BROFIL-3

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.
Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Test soils at potential expansion sites and compare to occupied reference sites to determine site suitability based on soils. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-2 Prepare habitat suitability models under current environmental conditions and for different scenarios of climate change to delineate potential future habitat. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-3 Collect covariate data on vegetation composition and cover (alliance and association-level mapping), soils, invasive plants and other threats for selected populations. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-4 Prioritize locations for conservation, management, and future surveys based on predicted distributions and environmental correlates. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and report to MSP web portal. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Refined Models and Prioritized Future Survey Locations for thread-leaved brodiaea by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2019 SS

MON-SURV-SPEC BROFIL-4

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, occurrence status, habitat mapping and assessment, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2020 SS

MGT-PRP-MGTPL BROFIL-5

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Prioritize extant occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Identify and prioritize sites for re-establishment of historic occurrences or that appear suitable for establishment of new occurrences. Specify the highest priority sites for establishing occurrences on Conserved Lands. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for thread-leaved brodiaea that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BROFIL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROFIL-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.
BROFIL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROFIL-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROFIL-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROFIL-8 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SS

MGT-IMP-MGTPL BROFIL-6

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 High priority Management Action Implemented for Thread-leaved Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SS

MON-IMP-MGTPL BROFIL-7

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2020 SS

MGT-PRP-SBPL BROFIL-8

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Thread-leaved brodiaea MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Design a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, completed section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BROFIL-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.
BROFIL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-9 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2021, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Thread-leaved brodiaea to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences
NFO 2021 SS

MGT-IMP-SBPL BROFIL-9

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2021, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Thread-leaved brodiaea to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Seed should be stored for conservation banking and as source of propagules for enhancement and restoration projects at a permanent, established seed bank. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and Thread-leaved brodiaea MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Thread-leaved brodiaea from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-8 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.