Goal: Maintain or enhance existing Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences and establish new occurrences, as needed, to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in coastal sage scrub vegetation communities.
Management units: 1, 3
From 2017 to 2021, inspect Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
|IMP-1||Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted.||in progress|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||in progress|
|Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1, 3
Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
|IMP-1||Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover.||available for implementation|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||available for implementation|
|Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1, 3
In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
|RES-1||Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences in the MSPA.||In progress||Population Genetic Analysis of 6 Rare Plant Species in San Diego County|
|RES-2||Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses.||In progress|
|RES-3||Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for Orcutt's bird's-beak.||In progress|
|RES-4||Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||In progress|
|Genetic Study with Management Recommendations Completed in 2017||2021|
|Threat Name||Threat Code|
|Loss of connectivity||LOSCON|
Management units: 1, 3
In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's bird's-beak locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
|SURV-1||At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling.||On hold|
|SURV-2||Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||On hold|
|Surveys and Report Completed by 2020||2021|
Management units: 3
From 2017 to 2019, enhance Orcutt's bird's-beak at the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrenceâ€™s occupied extent and adjacent suitable habitat.
|IMP-1||Conduct invasive plant control and distribute seed to enhance Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrence.||in progress|
|IMP-2||Implement seed augmentation using seed collected and bulked by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research.||in progress|
|IMP-3||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||in progress|
|By 2019, Orcutt's Bird's-beak Occurrence Enhanced and Report Submitted||2021|
|Threat Name||Threat Code|
Management units: 1, 3
In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-2||Prepare the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-3||The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-4||Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007).||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-5||Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|PRP-6||Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Bird's-beak Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 1, 3
From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
|IMP-1||Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|IMP-2||Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress||California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank|
|By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt'sBird's-beak from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 1, 3
In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.||on hold|
|PRP-2||Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences.||on hold|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||on hold|
|PRP-4||Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's bird's-beak that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets.||on hold|
|PRP-5||Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||on hold|
|By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Bird's-beak Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|By 2025, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Bird's-beak from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
|IMP-1||Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||waiting for precedent action|
|Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined||2021|
2021-2026 Rare Plant Regional Discovery Surveys
Starting in 2021, surveys were conducted on suitable habitat on Conserved Lands to document whether historic plant occurrences were extant and to discover new occurrences for rare plant species. The purpose of these surveys is to refine and update the distribution of these plants in the Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan Area. Voucher specimens and photographs are taken for each occurrence. Some species are already part of the Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Program and any new occurrences for these species will be included in future monitoring. In the next update of the Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan (2027), species not formerly monitored will be evaluated and potentially added to the Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Program. Botanists surveyed for four rare plant species in 2021: San Diego coastalcreeper (Aphanisma blitoides), Blochmanâ€™s dudleya (Dudleya blochmaniae), coast wallflower (Erysimum ammophilum), and Orcuttâ€™s birdâ€™s-beak (Dicranostegia orcuttiana). In 2022, botanists surveyed for: San Diego coastalcreeper (Aphanisma blitoides), Baja California oat grass (Sphenopholis interrupta ssp californica), San Diego ambrosia (Abrosia pumila), Wigginsâ€™ cryptantha (Crytantha wigginsii). In 2023, botanists will survey for five rare plant species: Deaneâ€™s milkvetch (Astragalus deanei), Parish brittlescale (Atriplex parishii), Mexican flannelbush (Fremontodendron mexicanum), Jenniferâ€™s monardella (Monardella stoneana ), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).
Dennery Canyon Rare Plant Restoration
The goal of this project is to restore and enhance populations of four Management Strategic Plan (MSP) plant species and vernal pool habitat over a three-year period. Species directly benefiting from this effort include: San Diego thornmint (Acanthomintha ilicifolia), Otay tarplant (Deinandra conjugens), San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila), Orcutt's birdâ€™s beak (Dicranostegia orcuttiana). The proposed project area encompasses approximately 8.68 acres. It provides a unique setting where the fours species co-exist with vernal pools not previously documented in the Vernal Pool Habitat Conservation Plan (VPHCP). Annual inspect and manage (IMG) monitoring results indicate increasing threats (primarily non-native weeds) are impacting MSP species populations in this area, and an intensive restoration effort is needed to ensure the long-term persistence of these species. Activities will consist of weed management, seed collection, seed bulking and redistribution, trash removal, vegetation monitoring, photo monitoring, and IMG monitoring. The proposed project will utilize the most current state of management knowledge along with Best Management Practices (BMPs) that have been successfully implemented in the region. This project is consistent with management objectives and actions in the MSP Roadmap, the MSP Framework Rare Plant Management Plan, and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan. This project is partially funded by SANDAG TransNet EMP Land Management Grant #S1125503.
Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Monitoring 2014-2026
From 2014-2026, a Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan (MSP Roadmap) monitoring objective for 30 rare plant species is to inspect occurrences to determine management needs. The inspect and manage (IMG) objective is implemented to document the status of rare plant occurrences and assess habitats and threats to develop specific management recommendations. IMG monitoring is implemented by a combination of land managers and contracted biologists in coordination with the SDMMP. Available rare plant data is posted below. New annual updates are typically posted in March. Based upon an evaluation of these data, a 2014-2026 monitoring schedule has been developed for the 30 rare plant species (attached below). Coordinating data collection across the region allows analyses of species and population trends over time and provides a better understanding of the association between habitat and threat covariates and population dynamics.
|File name||Lead Author||Year||Type|
|A Report of Genetic Sample Collections and Curation for Six Rare Plants within the San Diego MSPA San Diego County, California||Mulligan, Margaret||2018||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2014 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2014||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2015 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2015||report|
|Population Genomic Surveys for Six Rare Plant Species in San Diego County, California||Milano, Elizabeth; Vandergast, Amy||2018||report|
|SDNHM 2018 Rare Plant Genetic Sampling Final||2018||report|
Occurs in San Diego County and Baja California, Mexico .
Known to occur at five locations in MU3. A large occurrence (>5,000 individuals) in the Otay River Valley. Other occurrence small (<500 individuals; ).
Occurs 10-350m elevation . Prefers seasonally dry drainages and upland adjacent to riparian habitat . In Tijuana River Valley grows in cobbly ecotone with sage scrub upslope and disturbed broom baccharis and southern willow scrub near the watercourse. At Rogers Park is mapped in reiff fine sandy loam; on embankments of Otay River was mapped in Holocene alluviums and riverwash.
A member of the family Orobanchaceae. Until recently, classified based on morphological characters in genus Cordylanthus. However, DNA analysis led to splitting of Cordylanthus into three genera, including Dicranostegia . Orcuttâ€™s birdsâ€™-beak is only species in the new genus.
Population counts conducted in Otay River Valley between 2001 and 2005 found that number of plants was substantially lower during low rainfall years .
An annual that is hemiparasitic; blooms March-September .
Seriously threatened by urbanization [3,6]. Most important threats include off-road vehicles and recreational disturbance, followed by invasive plants. Recreational threats include mechanized trail widening in Otay River Valley, as it appears to often be found near trails . Illegal trails and off-road vehicles have caused considerable damage to populations in Otay Valley and Dennery Canyon . Also threatened by invasive plant species (nonnative annual grasses, giant reed, tamarisk, common fennel, tree tobacco, garland chrysanthemum, and black mustard) [5,7,8,9].
Special considerations: It is not difficult to collect seeds and redistribute them in a weed controlled area to encourage population expansion or establishment (Mark Dodero, pers . Comm.), but over-harvesting should be avoided.
 Reiser, C.H. 1994. Rare plants of San Diego County. Aquafir Press, Imperial Beach, CA. Available online: http://sandiego.sierraclub.org/rareplants/
 MSP-MOM. 2014. Management Strategic Plan Master Occurrence Matrix. http://sdmmp.com/reports_and_products/Reports_Products_MainPage.aspx
 CNPS, Rare Plant Program. 2014. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v8-02). California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. Website http://www.rareplants.cnps.org [accessed 12 June 2014].
 Tank, D.C., J.M. Egger, and R.G. Olmstead. 2009. Phylogenetic classification of subtribe Castillejinae (Orobanchaceae). Systematic Botany 34:182-197.
 City of San Diego. 2005. MSCP rare plant monitoring: field monitoring methods. Prepared by City of San Diego Planning Department Multiple Species Conservation Program Division.
 Beauchamp, R.M. 1986. A flora of San Diego County. Sweetwater River Press, 241 pp.
 McMillan and CBI. 2002. 2001 MSCP rare plant survey and monitoring report. Prepared for City of San Diego by McMillan Biological Consulting and the Conservation Biology Institute.
 RECON. 2004. Baseline biological resources report for the Chula Vista Central City Preserve baseline biological survey, City of Chula Vista. Prepared for City of Chula Vista.
 TAIC. 2010. Biological Monitoring Report for the Tijuana River Valley Regional Park (Monitoring Year 2009). Prepared by Technology Associates International Corporation (TAIC) for the County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation.