Goal: Maintain or enhance existing aphanisma occurrence(s) and establish new occurrences, as needed, to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and improve chances of persistence over the long term (>100 years) in coastal bluff, coastal dune and coastal sage scrub vegetation communities.
Management units: 1, 7
Beginning in 2017, inspect extant aphanisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.
|IMP-1||Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted.||in progress|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal.||in progress|
|Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at aphamisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
|IMP-1||Perform as needed routine management activities, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species less than or equal to 20% absolute cover.||available for implementation|
|IMP-2||Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.||available for implementation|
|Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
|SURV-1||At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling.||On hold|
|SURV-2||Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal.||On hold|
|Surveys and Report Completed by 2020||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the aphanisma section of the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-2||Write a seed collection plan section that includes collecting seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulating seeds across populations, and sampling among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from occurrences with <1,000 plants and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-3||The seed collection plan section should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-4||Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007).||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-5||Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-6||Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2022, Completed Aphanisma Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan||2021|
Management units: 1, 7
In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences and/or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat as needed to achieve at least 3 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
|PRP-1||Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the aphanisma section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-2||Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to aphanisma populations.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||available for implementation|
|PRP-3||Prioritize occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-4||Develop an implementation plan for aphanisma that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 year and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets.||some occurrences are in progress|
|PRP-5||Submit project metadata, project datasets, and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal.||some occurrences are in progress|
|By 2022, Completed Aphanisma Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan||2021|
2021-2026 Rare Plant Regional Discovery Surveys
Starting in 2021, surveys were conducted on suitable habitat on Conserved Lands to document whether historic plant occurrences were extant and to discover new occurrences for rare plant species. The purpose of these surveys is to refine and update the distribution of these plants in the Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan Area. Voucher specimens and photographs are taken for each occurrence. Some species are already part of the Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Program and any new occurrences for these species will be included in future monitoring. In the next update of the Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan (2027), species not formerly monitored will be evaluated and potentially added to the Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Program. Botanists surveyed for four rare plant species in 2021: San Diego coastalcreeper (Aphanisma blitoides), Blochman’s dudleya (Dudleya blochmaniae), coast wallflower (Erysimum ammophilum), and Orcutt’s bird’s-beak (Dicranostegia orcuttiana). In 2022, botanists surveyed for: San Diego coastalcreeper (Aphanisma blitoides), Baja California oat grass (Sphenopholis interrupta ssp californica), San Diego ambrosia (Abrosia pumila), Wiggins’ cryptantha (Crytantha wigginsii). In 2023, botanists will survey for five rare plant species: Deane’s milkvetch (Astragalus deanei), Parish brittlescale (Atriplex parishii), Mexican flannelbush (Fremontodendron mexicanum), Jennifer’s monardella (Monardella stoneana ), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).
Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Monitoring 2014-2026
From 2014-2026, a Management and Monitoring Strategic Plan (MSP Roadmap) monitoring objective for 30 rare plant species is to inspect occurrences to determine management needs. The inspect and manage (IMG) objective is implemented to document the status of rare plant occurrences and assess habitats and threats to develop specific management recommendations. IMG monitoring is implemented by a combination of land managers and contracted biologists in coordination with the SDMMP. Available rare plant data is posted below. New annual updates are typically posted in March. Based upon an evaluation of these data, a 2014-2026 monitoring schedule has been developed for the 30 rare plant species (attached below). Coordinating data collection across the region allows analyses of species and population trends over time and provides a better understanding of the association between habitat and threat covariates and population dynamics.
|File name||Lead Author||Year||Type|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2014 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2014||report|
|Management Strategic Plan (MSP) 2015 Monitoring Protocol for Rare Plant Occurrences on Conserved Lands in Western San Diego County||San Diego Management and Monitoring Program||2015||report|
|Reporting Period: Jan to May 2021 - Managing Rare and Native Plants, Restoring Social Trails, and Engaging the Public||2021||report|
Historically occurred from Ventura County to Baja California, Mexico, and on most Channel Islands. Apparently extirpated in much of the northern portion of its range; facing steep declines in all other mainland locations as well .
In San Diego County, in scattered locations along the coast from San Onofre southward to San Dieguito Creek, La Jolla, the Silver Strand, and Imperial Beach. A survey of coastal salt marshes and adjacent uplands in the late 1930’s found aphanisma to be infrequent in occurrence . In 2015, the San Elijo Lagoon Conservancy conducted plant surveys in coastal dunes and bluffs from the San Luis Rey River south to Torrey Pines State Reserve and did not find any occurrences of aphanisma at 19 sites . Within the MSPA, the only recent occurrence on Conserved Lands is in MU1 at Cabrillo National Monument .
Occurs on coastal bluffs and coastal strand (sand) habitats, in coastal bluff scrub, coastal sage scrub, and southern foredunes (beach) . In San Diego County occurs in alkaline areas along the coast below 25 m elevation . At Newport Back Bay it is found in soils mapped as Myford and Cieneba sandy loams .
Single species in genus Aphanisma within family Chenopodiaceae and subfamily Betoideae [8,9]. Closest sister taxa is Oreobliton, a North African genus with a single species, and two genera likely split 15.4-8.1 mya with parallel evolution in dry habitats .
Annual plant that may experience yearly fluctuations in population size .
Spring-blooming (April-May) annual succulent herb with bisexual flowers [6,7,11].
Presumed wind-pollinated and seeds are thought to be self-dispersed [12 ].
Threats include urbanization, recreational development, and foot traffic . On several of the Channel Islands is threatened by feral herbivores .
If viable seed is available, aphanisma may be a good candidate for reintroduction .
 Skinner, M.W. and B.M. Pavlik, editors. 1994. California Native Plant Society’s Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special publication no. 1, fifth edition. 338 pp.
 Purer, E.A. 1942. Plant ecology of the coastal salt marshlands of San Diego County, California. Ecological Monographs 12:81-111.
 Kentner, E., K. Morse, D. Varner. And F. Landis. 2015. North County Dunes Habitat Restoration Project Botanical Surveys. Presentation at the December 11, 2015 San Diego Management and Monitoring Program’s Rare Plant Meeting. Project funded by SANDAG’s TransNet Grant Program.
 MSP-MOM. 2014. Management Strategic Plan Master Occurrence Matrix. http://sdmmp.com/reports_and_products/Reports_Products_MainPage.aspx
 SANDAG. 2003. Volume II Final MHCP Plan: Biological Analysis and Permitting Conditions. Prepared by AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and Conservation Biology Institute for the Multiple Habitat Conservation Program Administered by SANDAG for the cities of Carlsbad, Encinitas, Escondido, Oceanside, San Marcos, Solana Beach and Vista.
 City of San Diego. 1995. Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP), Volume I: MSCP Resource Document. Prepared for the city of San Diego by Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., the Rick Alexander Company, Onaka Planning & Economics, Douglas Ford & Associates, Sycamore Associates, SourcePoint and CESAR.
 Reiser, C.H. 1994. Rare Plants of San Diego County. Aquafir Press, Imperial Beach, CA. Available online: http://sandiego.sierraclub.org/rareplants/
 Kadereit, G., T. Borsch, K. Weising and h. Freitag. 2003. Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164:959-986.
 Müller, K. and T. Borsch. 2005. Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae based on matK/trnK sequence data: evidence from parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 92:66-102.
 Hohman, S., J.W. Kadereit, and G. Kadereit. 2006. Understanding Mediterranean-Californian Disjunctions: Molecular Evidence fromChenopodiaceae-Betoideae. Taxon 55:67-78.
 eFloras. 2012. Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 23 August 2012]*' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
 McArthur, E.D. and S.C. Sanderson. 1984. Distribution, systematics, and evolution of Chenopodiaceae: an overview. Pages 14-21 in Proceedings – Symposium on the Biology of Atriplex and Related Chenopods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report INT-172.
 California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2012. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v8-01a). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Accessed on Thursday, August 23, 2012.