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2016 SANDAG info bits- Environmental Conservation in the San Diego Region fact sheet

With a varied landscape defined by scenic coastlines, majestic mountains, bucolic grasslands, and dazzling deserts carpeted with wildflowers, the San Diego region is a top biodiversity hotspot in North America and in the world. The region also is a leader in environmental conservation. Local, state, and federal agencies, along with nonprofit and private organizations, are working in concert to preserve half of the region (about 1.4 million acres) as permanent open space by 2050. SANDAG plays an important role in preserving open space and habitat through the Environmental Mitigation Program (EMP) funded by TransNet, the San Diego region's half-cent sales tax for transportation. The EMP funds habitat acquisition, land management, scientific research, and environmental restoration countywide.

San Diego's Changing Climate a Regional Wake-up Call: A summary of the Focus 2050 study presented by the San Diego Foundation fact sheet

The San Diego Foundation's Regional Focus 2050 Study explores what the San Diego region will be like in the year 2050 if current trends continue. More than 40 multi-disciplinary experts from regional universities, local governments, public sector agencies, nonprofits, and private sector organizations contributed to this research. The range of impacts presented in the Focus 2050 Study are based on projections of climate change on the San Diego region using three climate models and two emissions scenarios drawn from those used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A number of analytical models were developed and used for this study to provide quantitative estimates of the impacts where possible. This report draws upon the most current scientific analyses from a broad array of experts in climate science, demography and urban/regional planning, water, energy, public health, and ecology.

2010 Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distibution of puma habitat journal article

Lead author: Christopher Burdett
The impact of human land uses on ecological systems typically differ relative to how extensively natural conditions are modified. Exurban development is intermediate-intensity residential development that often occurs in natural landscapes. Most species-habitat models do not evaluate the effects of such intermediate levels of human development and even fewer predict how future development patterns might affect the amount and configuration of habitat. We addressed these deficiencies by interfacing a habitat model with a spatially-explicit housing-density model to study the effect of human land uses on the habitat of pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California. We studied the response of pumas to natural and anthropogenic features within their home ranges and how mortality risk varied across a gradient of human development. We also used our housing-density model to estimate past and future housing densities and model the distribution of puma habitat in 1970, 2000, and 2030. The natural landscape for pumas in our study area consisted of riparian areas, oak woodlands, and open, conifer forests embedded in a chaparral matrix. Pumas rarely incorporated suburban or urban development into their home ranges, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral decisions of individuals can be collectively manifested as population-limiting factors at broader spatial scales. Pumas incorporated rural and exurban development into their home ranges, apparently perceiving these areas as modified, rather than non-habitat. Overall, pumas used exurban areas less than expected and showed a neutral response to rural areas. However, individual pumas that selected for or showed a neutral response to exurban areas had a higher risk of mortality than pumas that selected against exurban habitat. Exurban areas are likely hotspots for pumahuman conflict in southern California. Approximately 10% of our study area will transform from exurban, rural, or undeveloped areas to suburban or urban by 2030, and 35% of suitable puma habitat on private land in 1970 will have been lost by 2030. These land-use changes will further isolate puma populations in southern California, but the ability to visualize these changes had provided a new tool for developing proactive conservation solutions.

2021 Projecting the remaining habitat for the western spadefoot (Spea hammondii) in heavily urbanized southern California journal article

Lead author: Jonathan P. Rose
Extensive urbanization in coastal southern California has reduced natural habitat in this biodiversity hotspot. To better conserve ecological communities, state and federal agencies, along with local jurisdictions and private stakeholders, developed regional conservation plans for southern California. Although many protected areas exist within this region, the patchwork nature of these protected areas might not provide good coverage for species that require multiple habitat components, such as amphibians with complex life histories. Because of declines in the past century, the status of the western spadefoot (Spea hammondii) in southern California is of concern to state and federal wildlife agencies. Species distribution models (SDMs) can aid in determining the conservation status of imperiled species by projecting where suitable habitat remains and how much is protected from further development. We built SDMs that integrated site-occupancy data from systematic pitfall trapping surveys and presence-only data from biodiversity databases and citizen science platforms to project the current distribution of western spadefoots in southern California. Western spadefoot occurrence was positively related to the cover of grassland or shrub/scrub and the % sand in the soil within a 1000 m buffer, and was negatively related to slope, elevation, and distance to ephemeral streams or vernal pools. Most of the remaining unprotected habitat for western spadefoots is in the southern half of its historical range in western San Diego and Riverside counties. A few large tracts of spadefoot habitat exist on U.S. Department of Defense lands and smaller tracts remain on ecological reserves owned by state and local government agencies. Only small patches of habitat remain in the northern half of this clade’s historical range in Ventura, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties. Existing regional conservation plans provide ostensible spatial coverage of the majority of extant habitat for western spadefoots in southern California, but most of the habitat within the jurisdiction of these plans lacks formal protection, exposing this species to further declines as urbanization continues in the 21st century.

2011 Nesting ecology of Burrowing Owls occupying Black-Tailed Prarie Dog towns in southeastern Montana journal article

Lead author: Marcos Restani
Detailed investigations of the relationship between Burrowing Owls (Athene cuniculariaa) and black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are rare, but such information is necessary to manage the population declines of owls reported throughout much of the western United States. In 1998 we studied nest-site selection, productivity, and food habits of Burrowing Owls breeding on prairie dog towns in southeastern Montana. We located 13 breeding pairs, seven of which nested on private land. Nesting density( 1 pair/110 ha) on prairie dog towns was low compared to densities in other regions. Few habitat characteristics differed between nest sites and random points, but power in statistical tests was low. Nesting density and habitat use suggested the population of owls was well below carrying capacity. Productivity was 2.6 young/pair. Owls fed on invertebrates (mainly grasshoppers and beetles), mammals (mice and voles), birds (blackbirds and buntings), and amphibians (fogs). Plague (Yersinia pestis), poison, and habitat conversion have fragmented prairie dog habitat and potentially threaten owl persistence in our study area.

2012 Preserve Management Plan and Funding Agreement Manzanita Partners Project other

Purpose of Inclusion of the Preserve area in the HMP As part of the approval process for the Manzanita Apartment Project (Subject Property), Manzanita Partners, L.L.C. (Manzanita Partners) granted a Conservation Easement as depicted on Exhibit A, to provide mitigation for certain impacts of the Manzanita Apartment Project pursuant to the Mitigated Negative Declaration adopted by the City of Carlsbad, SCH No. 99051009, and the Mitigation Plan created thereunder. 32.09 acres is reserved by easement to conserve the biological open space for the purpose of preserving and enhancing resource values. In addition,the City of Carlsbad approved site development plan,SDP-98-19, and imposed Condition Number 33 of Planning Commission Resolution 4620, dated September 15,1999, which generally states: a) continued ownership by the Developer or it's successors in interest in open space until some future date at which time ownership will be transferred to the City or its designee for perpetual maintenance; b) while in continued private ownership, active maintenance to protect and preserve the quality of the habitat (including but not limited to reasonable prevention of trespass); and,c) transfer of ownership and maintenance responsibility at some future date to the City or its designee simultaneously with transfer of funding or other acceptable financial mechanism to provide for management and conservation in perpetuity. Additionally, the 32.09 acres has been designated as an open space preserve to protect habitat for the coastal California gnatcatcher, protect Del Mar Manzanita, and to protect vernal pools. The management objectives of this Preserve Management Plan and Funding Agreement are to provide a long term plan for the maintenance and management of the conservation area, outline the biological goals, and state the responsibilities of the parties involved. Preserve Area History The United States Army Corp of Engineers issued a Nationwide Permit Authorization, Permit Number 98-2025500-DZ, on April 4, 1999. The Corp of Engineers has determined that the activity complies with the terms and conditions of nationwide permit NW 14 [Federal Register, December 13, 1996, pp. 65874 - 65922] for fills for roads crossing waters of the United States. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service issued a Biological Opinion No. 1-6-99F-063, on October 21,1999, in relation to the Subject Property. A Conservation Easement Deed with Manzanita Par

Multiple Species Conservation Program Subarea Plan other

The County of San Diego?s Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan, a regional plan that ensures the long-term survival of sensitive plant and animal species and protects the native vegetation, and its associated Implementing Agreement (IA) establish the conditions under which the County will receive from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and California Department of Fish and Game certain long-term Take Authorizations. The purpose of the plan is to benefit the County, public and private land owners and other land development project proponents within its Subarea boundaries. The IA is an acknowledgment that the MSCP satisfies conditions established in the Section 4(d) Special Rule for the coastal California gnatcatcher that will allow the taking of certain Covered Species incidental to land development and other lawful land uses which are authorized by the County.

2016 American Badger Research in Western San Diego County, 2015 report

Lead author: Cheryl Brehme
Badgers (Taxidea taxus) are wide-ranging mid-sized predators associated with grassland and upland habitats. Their large home ranges, low densities, and low fecundity make them particularly vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and road mortality. The American badger is a covered species under the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan (MSCP) and has been identified by the San Diego Monitoring and Management Program (SDMMP) Connectivity Monitoring Strategic Plan as a target species for monitoring regional-scale functional connectivity of upland and grassland habitats and is considered to be at risk of loss from the SDMMP Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA). In 2015, we continued studies of the spatial and temporal use of habitats by the American badger by conducting monthly field sign and infrared (IR) camera surveys across seven focal sites in the County where we previously documented substantial and/or repeated badger activity; Volcan Mountain Ecological Reserve (ER), Santa Ysabel ER, Ramona Grasslands Preserve, Barnett Ranch Preserve, Marron Valley Cornerstone Lands, Rancho Guejito (privately owned), and the upper San Diego River and El Capitan Grande Reservation. Our objective was to determine if badgers use these areas annually and if so, to better document the duration and season(s) of activity.

2004 Chula Vista Central City Preserve Area Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) for Preserve Management Area 2 (PMA 2), City of Chula Vista report

Purpose of the Area Specific Management Directives Plan Using the baseline biological information obtained through the California Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP) grant-funded special study, this Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMD) plan has been prepared to provide guidelines for the protection, maintenance, and management of preserved natural open space on Preserve Management Area 2 (PMA 2) of the City of Chula Vista's Central City Preserve (Preserve). The Central City Preserve was created in response to the City of Chula Vista Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan as a means to protect sensitive biological resources within the jurisdiction. The natural open space of PMA 2 supports sensitive and depleted plant communities and species unique to the region. MSCP covered flora and fauna species and sensitive habitats are the primary resources identified for protection in this PMA. The PMA also acts to protect the quality of life for residents of Chula Vista. Multiple Species Conservation Program The MSCP is a comprehensive, long-term habitat conservation plan that addresses the needs of multiple species and the preservation of natural vegetation communities of San Diego County. The City of San Diego along with the County of San Diego and other adjacent jurisdictions developed a subregional plan under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 that encompasses 582,243 acres across a total of 12 jurisdictions (City of San Diego 1998). The MSCP provides a framework for preserving and protecting natural resources and federal and state endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. It addresses the potential impacts of urban growth, loss of natural habitat and species endangerment, and creates a plan to mitigate for the potential loss of covered species and their habitats due to direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of future development of both public and private lands within the MSCP area. This MSCP Subregional Plan is implemented through local Subarea Plans prepared by the participating jurisdictions. These Subarea Plans are prepared in coordination with federal and state resource agencies and result in the issuance of permits that allow for a certain level of impact to state and federally listed species. The City of Chula Vista has prepared and adopted an MSCP Subarea Plan to guide implementation of the MSCP within its corporate boundaries (City of Chula Vista 2003)

2003 Vernal Pool Inventory 2002-2003 report

The updated inventory provides current and expanded information regarding the location of vernal pool basins and rare, threatened, and endangered biota within the City of San Diego. The resulting data, which includes vernal pools on private and public lands, will be analyzed to determine the extent of vernal pool protection, as well as current preservation and management needs. This new information will serve as the basis for updating the City of San Diego Vernal Pool Management Plan (1996), which identifies and prioritizes management activities for vernal pools on land owned by the City of San Diego.

2009 County of San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program Quino Checkerspot Butterfly Amendment Proposed Conservation Policies report

This report provides the project processing procedures proposed as part of the County of San Diego?s Quino Checkerspot Butterfly Amendment (Quino Amendment) to the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan (County Subarea Plan) and an analysis of anticipated conservation levels. By providing a concise summary of these critical issues, this report will facilitate review by staff, analysts, consultants, property owners, and the Wildlife Agencies (California Department of Fish and Game and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service). It is assumed that those reviewing this report have prior knowledge of the County of San Diego?s Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) South County Subarea Plan (County Subarea Plan) and Quino Amendment. In general, the Quino Amendment will provide assurances for the long-term conservation of Quino within the County Subarea while allowing for public and private development consistent with the approved Implementing Agreement for the County Subarea Plan. Upon approval of the Quino Amendment, Quino will be included as a Covered Species Subject to Incidental Take under the County Subarea Plan. Such authorization is necessary because otherwise lawful activities associated with construction of public and private projects in the County Subarea will result in the modification and destruction of Quino habitat.

2012 City of Carlsbad Habitat Management Plan Annual Report and Monitoring Summary Year 7, Nov. 2010 - October 2011 report

This is the seventh annual HMP summary report, covering the period of November 1, 2010 to October 31, 2011. This report summarizes the preserve status, implementation activities, and preserve gains and losses that have occurred during the current reporting period. Highlights of HMP activities are summarized below. Current Status of Preserves The existing preserves continued to be managed, monitored, and/or maintained during the reporting period. Established private and City‐owned Hardline Preserves were managed and monitored in accordance with their approved Preserve Management Plans; California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) preserves were managed subject to available funding and resources; and pre‐existing natural open space areas were maintained according to their respective Open Space Easements, if applicable. Several future preserves made progress towards full management and monitoring during the reporting period, namely: Cantarini, Carlsbad Raceway, Dos Colinas, Manzanita Apartments, Muroya, Poinsettia Place, and Quarry Creek. Descriptions of the different categories of preserves and details of the progress towards preserve establishment during the reporting period are contained in Section 1.3. City Mitigation Parcel (Lake Calavera Preserve) A total of 1.7 acres were debited during the reporting period; cumulative debits to date are 84.5 acres. A total of 171.5 acres (credits) remain. Carlsbad Gnatcatcher Core Area Obligation At the start of the reporting period, the remaining Core Area obligation consisted of (1) acquisition of 43.02 acres of occupied coastal sage scrub habitat, and (2) reimbursement for 50.13 acres Core Area habitat previously purchased by Lennar Corporation (and currently managed). There were two highlights during this reporting period: (1) the City met its first funding obligation of a four‐year agreement to fund an endowment on the Perkins property, owned by Center for Natural Lands Management, bringing the remaining Core Area obligation to 35.49 acres, and (2) the City purchased the 50.13 acres of conservation credit from Lennar. E‐2 Annual Report for the Carlsbad HMP, Year 7 June 4, 2012 Land Acquisitions There were no land acquisitions inside of the HMP Planning Area during the reporting period. Habitat Gains and Losses There were no habitat gains or losses inside of the preserve system during the current reporting period. Rough Step Preserve Assembly The rough step policy stat

2004 JOINT AGENCY STATEMENT & GUIDANCE ON DEER FENCING report

This document seeks to promote best practice and assist both private individuals and public sector agencies in deciding whether to fund and/or permit deer fencing. Deer fencing can serve a useful purpose for controlling deer, helping to achieve environmental objectives and preventing deer causing a public hazard. ♦ The full range of options for controlling deer should be considered taking into account effectiveness for purpose and possible impacts on public safety, deer welfare, biodiversity, landscape, cultural heritage and recreation. ♦ Where fencing is considered appropriate, fences should be designed to minimise their impact on these interests. ♦ Fencing should be seen as part of a wider programme of deer management and fences should not be left erected for longer than necessary . ♦ Anyone erecting a deer fence should consider the possible impacts on the wider deer range and particularly adjacent properties and local communities. ♦ Deer dependent on the fenced off area should be culled. ♦ Agency decisions on deer fencing will be guided by these principles. ♦ Approval or financial support for fencing will be dependent on adverse impacts being mitigated.

1996 Poway Subarea Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan (Volume 1: Plan) report

This plan serves two general functions: 1) to create a sustainable, interconnected network of habitat preserves throughout (and ultimately beyond) the City and thus maintain functioning ecosystems and viable populations of biological resources; and 2) to mitigate adverse impacts to biological resources from building the Scripps Poway Parkway Extension (County SA-780) and implementing the Poway General Plan and Paguay Redevelopment Plan. Implementing this HCP will ensure compatibility between future development and conservation in the City, while meeting the immediate mitigation requirements for building Scripps Poway Parkway and public and private projects anticipated by the Poway General Plan and the Paguay Redevelopment Plan.

2000 County of San Diego MSCP 2000 Annual Report report

The County is required, on a yearly basis, to account for the amount of habitat lost and gained within its jurisdiction. The Subarea Plan covers approximately 252,248.00 acres of land. The overal preservation goal of the County?s Subarea Plan is expected to cover approximately 101,268.00 acres of land. Prior to March 17, 1998, there were approximately 37,115.70 acres, of preservation land that was included in the Subarea Plan. Information is provided, by vegetation type, of the amount of each type of vegetation community preserved prior to implementation of the Subarea Plan. This includes all land acquired within the Subarea, by Federal, State, or Local jursidicitons as well as land that was negotiated for preservation by private landowners within the Lake Hodges and South County Segments.

2009 Conservation Plan for the Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) report

This Conservation Plan (Plan) was developed to promote and facilitate cooperative efforts to ensure the long-term persistence of the Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) (tricolor). This species has suffered an alarming population decline. Loss of native habitats, a habit of nesting in extremely large and dense colonies, and an attraction for nesting in croplands nearing harvest conspired against this species? survival in California?s fertile valleys (see Biological Information in Appendix A). Concern over the future of the species united a diverse coalition of parties, the Tricolored Blackbird Working Group. This Plan is the work of that group and represents their commitment, and the other signatories to this document, to securing the future of tricolors. This work will be accomplished largely through voluntary, coordinated, and collaborative conservation actions of many interested stakeholders. Signatories to the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) associated with this Plan commit to support the implementation of: (1) habitat conservation projects to benefit the species; (2) a research program to more thoroughly understand the species? life history; (3) a monitoring program to effectively document population trends and distribution; and (4) an outreach and education program to enhance public and private landowner awareness, and to build public support for conservation. It is the intention of the signatories to develop, enhance, and implement comprehensive and collaborative conservation efforts to ensure the long-term survival of tricolors.

2004 Chula Vista Central City Preserve Area Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) for Preserve Management Area 4 (PMA 4), City of Chula Vista report

Purpose of the Plan Using the baseline biological information obtained through the California Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP) grant funded special study, this Area Specific Management Directives (ASMD) plan has been prepared to provide guidelines for the protection, maintenance, and management of preserved natural open space on Preserve Management Area 4 (PMA 4) of the City of Chula Vista's Central City Preserve (Preserve). The Central City Preserve was created in response to the City of Chula Vista Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan as a means to protect sensitive biological resources within the jurisdiction. The natural open space of PMA 4 supports sensitive and depleted plant communities and species unique to the region. MSCP covered flora and fauna species and sensitive habitats are the primary resources identified for protection in this PMA. The PMA also acts to enhance the quality of life for residents of Chula Vista. Multiple Species Conservation Program The MSCP is a comprehensive, long-term habitat conservation plan that addresses the needs of multiple species and the preservation of natural vegetation communities of San Diego County. The City of San Diego along with the County of San Diego and other adjacent jurisdictions developed a subregional plan under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 that encompasses 582,243 acres across a total of 12 jurisdictions (City of San Diego 1998). The MSCP provides a framework for preserving and protecting natural resources and federal and state endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. It addresses the potential impacts of urban growth, loss of natural habitat and species endangerment, and creates a plan to mitigate for the potential loss of covered species and their habitats due to direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of future development of both public and private lands within the MSCP area. This MSCP Subregional Plan is implemented through local Subarea Plans prepared by the participating jurisdictions. These Subarea Plans are prepared in coordination with federal and state resource agencies and result in the issuance of permits that allow for a certain level of impact to state and federally listed species. The City of Chula Vista has prepared and adopted an MSCP Subarea Plan to guide implementation of the MSCP within its corporate boundaries (City of Chula Vista 2003). The MSCP Subarea Plan is a plan a

1998 County of San Diego 1998 Annual Report of the Multiple Species Conservation Plan report

The County is required to account for the amount of habitat lost (take), and gained (preservation), on a yearly basis. The Subarea Plan covers approximately 252,248 acres of land. The overall preservation goal of the County's Subarea Plan is expected to cover approximately 101,268 acres of land. Prior to March 17, 1998, there were approximately 62,550.67 acres (Baseline Preserve Area), of this preservation land that was included in the Subarea Plant (Figure 1). This land includes all land acquisition within the Subarea either by Federal, State, or Local jurisdictions or land that was negotiated to be preserved by private landowners within the Lake Hodges and South County Segments. Table 1 provides information, by vegetation type, of the amount of each type of vegetation prior to implementation of the Subarea Plan. Based on this information, the County, along with its public and private partners, will be required to obtain approximately 38,717.33 acres of land to meet the preservation goal of 101,268 acres. This report accounts for habitat loss and conservation within the Subarea Plan associated with the following types of developments projects between march 17, 1998 and December 31, 1998: Private Projects (TM/TPM's) that have Final map Approval, Projects that have been issued Grading Permits, Building Permits exempt from the Biological Mitigation Ordinance, Land acquired by the County of other governmental agency for Preservation Purposes, and Approved Mitigation Bank Lands with at least one credit utilized and Non-approved Mitigation Banks. The overall amount of take and preservation that occurred during the 1998 accounting period was 884.49 acres and 10,022.51 acres respectively. These totals include both urban/developed and disturbed habitat types. Subtracting 302.81 and 171.79 acres of urban/developed and disturbed habitat from the above totals results in an overall take of 581.68 acres and preservation of 9850.72 acres (Table 2) Table 2 also identifies area that are considered as neither take nor preserve. This includes 136.12 acres of land that were identifies as non-biological open space or areas outside of take associated with building permits and agricultural clearing.

2004 Chula Vista Central City Preserve Area Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) for Preserve Management Area 1 (PMA 1), City of Chula Vista report

Purpose of the Area Specific Management Directives Plan Using the baseline biological information obtained through the California Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP) grant funded special study, this Area Specific Management Directives (ASMD) plan has been prepared to provide guidelines for the protection, maintenance, and management of preserved natural open space on Preserve Management Area 1 (PMA 1) of the City of Chula Vista's Central City Preserve (Preserve). The Central City Preserve was created in response to the City of Chula Vista Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan as a means to protect sensitive biological resources within the jurisdiction. The natural open space of PMA 1 supports sensitive and depleted plant communities and species unique to the region. MSCP covered flora and fauna species and sensitive habitats are the primary resources identified for protection in this PMA. The PMA also acts to enhance the quality of life for residents of Chula Vista. Multiple Species Conservation Program The MSCP is a comprehensive, long-term habitat conservation plan that addresses the needs of multiple species and the preservation of natural vegetation communities of San Diego County. The City of San Diego along with the County of San Diego and other adjacent jurisdictions developed a subregional plan under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 that encompasses 582,243 acres across a total of 12 jurisdictions (City of San Diego 1998). This plan provides a framework for preserving and protecting natural resources and federal and state endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. It addresses the potential impacts of urban growth, loss of natural habitat and species endangerment, and creates a plan to mitigate for the potential loss of covered species and their habitats due to direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of future development of both public and private lands within the MSCP area. This MSCP Subregional Plan is implemented through local Subarea Plans prepared by the participating jurisdictions. These Subarea Plans are prepared in coordination with federal and state resource agencies and result in the issuance of permits that allow for a certain level of impact to state and federally listed species. The City of Chula Vista has prepared and adopted an MSCP Subarea Plan to guide implementation of the MSCP within its corporate boundaries (City of Chula Vista 2003

2007 County of San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program 2007 Annual Report report

This is the Ninth Annual Habitat Tracking Report for the County of San Diego?s Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) South County Subarea Plan (South County Subarea Plan). This report accounts for habitat loss and gain associated with development projects from January 1 through December 31, 2007 within the South County Subarea Plan. This report also includes a discussion of other land acquisitions, management and monitoring programs and funding sources that are utilized by the County to meet its MSCP implementation obligations. The MSCP South County Subarea Plan covers approximately 242,379 acres of land. The overall preservation goal of the County?s Subarea Plan is approximately 98,379 acres. From the inception of the South County MSCP Subarea Plan in 1998 through December 31, 2007, the County and its partners have achieved just over 66% of the conservation goal by conserving 65,214.51 acres of land through acquisition, dedication of easements and baseline preserve. In addition to the 65,214.5 acres already conserved to date, 12,246 acres of private baseline land were committed to be conserved through the South County MSCP Subarea Plan and will be dedicated in conformance with the Subarea Plan as development occurs. Upon conveyance of these private baseline lands, the County and its partners will have achieved 79% of the total conservation goal (not including future gains).

1999 Habitat Management Plan for Natural Communities in the City of Carlsbad report

Purpose The Habitat Management Plan for Natural Communities in the City of Carlsbad (Carlsbad HMP, "the Plan") proposes a comprehensive, citywide, program to identify how the City, in cooperation with federal and state wildlife agencies, can preserve the diversity of habitat and protect sensitive biological resources within the City while allowing for additional development consistent with the City's General Plan and its Growth Management Plan. In so doing, the Plan is intended to lead to citywide permits and authorization for the incidental take of sensitive species in conjunction with private development projects, public projects, and other activities, which are consistent with the Plan. These permits would be issued under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the California Endangered Species Act, the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act. The Plan also is designed to serve the following additional functions: 1. Preserve wildlife and habitats as part of the City's permanent open space system and thereby be a component of the Open Space and Conservation Element of the City's General Plan; 2. Allow the City to construct public facility and infrastructure projects dictated by the City's Growth Management Plan; 3. Define the City's contribution to regional efforts to conserve coastal sage scrub (CSS) habitat and species under California's Natural Community Conservation Planning (NCCP) program. The Plan constitutes an Ongoing Multi-Species Plan (OMSP) that is consistent with NCCP guidelines; 4. Allow projects in the City to fulfill their federal and state Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements for certain species through compliance with the HMP; 5. Constitute a habitat conservation plan (HCP), as described in Section lO(a)(l)B of the Endangered Species Act and Section 2835 of the California Endangered Species Act related to the NCCP Program, submitted with the City's application to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) for authorization to take certain listed species; and 6. Constitute Carlsbad's Subarea plan within the North County Multiple Habitat Conservation Plan (MHCP). Formal approval and adoption of the Plan will occur through issuance of Section lO(a) Permit and approval and execution of an Implementing Agreement between the City, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the California Department of Fish and Game. Priv

2007 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006 report

Lead author: Barbara Kus
We have learned of many new breeding sites and territories since the early 1990s as a result of extensive survey efforts throughout the Southwest. In 1993, there were only 140 known territories distributed among 40 breeding sites. The current estimate (as of 2006) is 1262 territories located among 284 sites (but remember the earlier caution about lack of standard definition for "site"). Not all of the 284 known sites are surveyed every year. The total estimated number of known territories (1262) is based on the most recent survey at all sites and does not reflect sites that were actually surveyed in a given year. At 126 sites surveyed in 2006, there were 831 territories detected. Most territories are found within small breeding sites (those sites with five or fewer territories). There are only six sites with 50 or more territories, though this comparison is confounded by lack of a standard definition of site. Most territories are found within small breeding sites (those sites with five or fewer territories). There are only six sites with 50 or more territories, though this comparison is confounded by lack of a standard definition of site. The states of California, Arizona, and New Mexico account for 88% of known flycatcher territories. Nevada, Colorado, and Utah collectively have 12% of the known territories. We have received no reporting from standardized Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys in Texas, and hence know nothing of the current status of the flycatcher there. Southwestern Willow Flycatchers are distributed over a wide elevation range, with most from sea level to 1600 m, but a few sites (n=3) are located as high as 2500 m in elevation. Southwestern Willow Flycatchers are distributed over a wide elevation range, with most from sea level to 1600 m, but a few sites (n=3) are located as high as 2500 m in elevation. Fewer than half (43%) of territories are in native habitat and 28% are in habitats having a 50% or greater exotic component. A large percentage of the territories in native habitat occur at one site - the Cliff-Gila Valley in New Mexico. Over 90% of territories are in habitats where willow, saltcedar, or boxelder are the dominant tree species; flycatchers breed in boxelder-dominated habitats only in the Cliff-Gila Valley, New Mexico. Fewer than half (44%) of sites are on federally-controlled lands and 28% are on private lands; these privately owned sites account for 36% of known territories. Approximately one-third (32%

1999 County of San Diego MSCP 1999 Annual Report report

The County is required to account for the amount of habitat lost, and gained, on a yearly basis. The Subarea Plan covers approximately 252,248 acres of land. The overall preservation goal of the County?s subarea Plan is expect to cover approximately 101, 268 acres of land. Prior to March 17, 1998, there were approximately 62,550.67 acres of preservation land that was included in the Subarea Plan. This land includes all land acquired within the Subarea either by the Federal, State or Local jurisdictions or land that was negotiated to be preserved by private landowners within the Lake Hodges and South County Segments.

2020 Stewarding California's Biodiversity: Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) for Invasive Plants report

Lead author: Doug Johnson
In 2018, then-Governor Jerry Brown established the California Biodiversity Initiative, setting biodiversity protection as a top state priority. The Biodiversity Collaborative is the next phase in the evolution of California’s biodiversity conservation movement, integrating and building on efforts started by the California Biodiversity Initiative launched by Governor Brown. Like California’s State Wildlife Action Plan and Climate Adaptation Strategy, the Biodiversity Collaborative identifies the importance of controlling invasive species as part of attaining a sustainable future. Indeed, hundreds of entities across California are engaged in strategic efforts to limit the scope and magnitude of the damage that these species do to the state’s biodiversity and natural resources. When possible, land managers use a strategic approach called early detection and rapid response (EDRR) that focuses on stopping new invasive plants before they become widespread. As with a raging wildfire, a surging infectious disease, or a leaking oil pipeline, the longer one waits to act, the more difficult and costly the task and the greater the damage that has already been done. While the concept is simple, its implementation is complex. Effective EDRR requires timely data, proactive effort, landscape-level coordination among public and private landowners, and a consistent and sustained approach. In California, many pieces of an effective EDRR system are already in place, from an online network for sharing botanical information to a statewide network of land managers. But steady funding to implement EDRR systematically across the state’s 100 million acres is lacking. With the new Biodiversity Collaborative in place, the time has come for an increased commitment to invasive plant EDRR.

2004 Chula Vista Central City Preserve Area Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) for Preserve Management Area 3 (PMA 3), City of Chula Vista report

Purpose of the Area Specific Management Directive Plan Using the baseline biological information obtained through the California Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP) grant funded special study, this Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMD) plan has been prepared to provide guidelines for the protection, maintenance, and management of preserved natural open space on Preserve Management Area 3 (PMA 3) of the City of Chula Vista's Central City Preserve (Preserve). The Central City Preserve was created in response to the City of Chula Vista Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Subarea Plan as a means to protect sensitive biological resources within the jurisdiction. The natural open space of PMA 3 supports sensitive and depleted plant communities and species unique to the region. MSCP covered flora and fauna species and sensitive habitats are the primary resources identified for protection in this PMA. The PMA also acts to protect the quality of life for residents of Chula Vista. Multiple Species Conservation Program The MSCP is a comprehensive, long-term habitat conservation plan that addresses the needs of multiple species and the preservation of natural vegetation communities of San Diego County. The City of San Diego along with the County of San Diego and other adjacent jurisdictions developed a subregional plan under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 that encompasses 582,243 acres across a total of 12 jurisdictions (City of San Diego 1998). The MSCP provides a framework for preserving and protecting natural resources and federal and state endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. It addresses the potential impacts of urban growth, loss of natural habitat and species endangerment, and creates a plan to mitigate for the potential loss of covered species and their habitats due to direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of future development of both public and private lands within the MSCP area. This MSCP Subregional Plan is implemented through local Subarea Plans prepared by the participating jurisdictions. These Subarea Plans are prepared in coordination with federal and state resource agencies and result in the issuance of permits that allow for a certain level of impact to state and federally listed species. The City of Chula Vista has prepared and adopted an MSCP Subarea Plan to guide implementation of the MSCP within its corporate boundaries (City of Chula Vista 2003).

2007 County of San Diego MSCP Monitoring Summary Report January 1998 - June 2007 report

The MSCP Implementing Agreement (Section 14.5) states that the "County will be responsible for the biological monitoring of its own, specified public lands, as well as mitigation lands obtained by it in fee title or easement, and lands acquired by it for the MSCP using the regional funding program or other local sources." The scope of these monitoring efforts are guided by the following documents: Implementing Agreement1: Chapter 14 Final MSCP Plan2: Table 3-5, Sections 5.4.1 and 5.5 and 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 and 6.4.1 County Subarea Plan3: Sections 1.6 and 1.7 Ogden's Biological Monitoring Plan (Ogden BMP) 4 Area-specific Management Directives (ASMDs) developed for County properties (according to Table 3-5 of the Final MSCP Plan and the County's Framework Management Plan5) Ongoing adaptive methods discussed through the MSCP Monitoring Committee (a subcommittee to the Habitat Management Technical Committee) Habitat Management Plans developed for the Santa Fe Valley, 4S Ranch, and other private open space, and the Resource Management Plan for Otay Ranch. In some instances, regional monitoring points recommended by the Ogden BMP may fall in areas where multiple agencies own(ed) land (e.g., McGinty Mountain, San Vicente Highlands and Boulder Oaks). Some of these areas have management and/or monitoring agreements between agencies that will help address issues of responsibility. In other cases, coordination between agencies is a necessary next step in order to achieve a coordinated and effective regional monitoring program. ASMDs are to direct management and monitoring actions on preserves owned by or dedicated to the County within the MSCP. These directives will be developed and implemented to address species and habitat management needs in a phased manner for logical and discrete areas, once conserved as part of the preserve, including any species-specific management required as conditions of the take authorizations. Species

1998 Final Multiple Species Conservation Program MSCP Plan report

The Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) is a comprehensive habitat conservation planning program that addresses multiple species habitat needs and the preservation of native vegetation communities for a 900-square-mile area in southwestern San Diego County. It is one of three subregional habitat planning efforts in San Diego County (Figure 1-1 ), which contribute to preservation of regional biodiversity through coordination with other habitat conservation planning efforts throughout southern California. The MSCP will allow local jurisdictions (Figure 1-2) to maintain land use control and development flexibility by planning a regional preserve system that can meet future public and private project mitigation needs. The MSCP Plan does not impose major new restrictions on land use. Rather, the plan is designed to streamline and coordinate existing procedures for review and permitting of project impacts to biological resources.

2002 The Utility of High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Mapping and Monitoring Vernal Pool Habitat in Transitional Urban Environments report

Lead author: Keith Greer
Vernal pools are seasonal, depression-type wetlands which function as micro-habitats that support multiple rare, threatened and endangered species. Vernal pools largely occur on tops of mesas within the western half of San Diego County. Due to decades of expansive urban development, only 5% of the original vernal pool population exists today and many of the remaining pools are severely degraded and are at risk of being destroyed. Vernal pools are now considered sufficiently critical that local, state and federal laws require the protection of vernal pools even when they occur on private property. Successful stewardship of vernal pools is dependent on the ability to locate and monitor the status of the pools and the species that occur within them. Currently, the management and monitoring of vernal pools is performed through field surveys which is time consuming, costly, and limited in spatial coverage. Remote sensing offers the opportunity to derive valuable habitat information at spatial and temporal scales that are not possible with ground sampling. The utility of high spatial resolution, multispectral imagery was evaluated for multiple tasks associated with vernal pool mapping and characterization, including: locating unknown pools and delineating pool basin extents, mapping vernal pool plants, estimating pool depth, and characterizing land use and land cover adjacent to sensitive vernal pool habitats. ADAR 5500 multispectral imagery was acquired at multiple resolutions within two San Diego County study sites during February and May of 2001. The first site at Otay Mesa was reconstructed in 1998 as part of a land mitigation project and contains over 300 vernal pools within a small geographic area. Naturally occurring pools in this area were scraped and destroyed in the 1970s. The second site at Marron Valley contains a small number of naturally occurring vernal pools. This site is the subject of biological monitoring, as recent fires and many years of cattle grazing have degraded the habitat surrounding the vernal pools. An experiment was performed with multiple resolutions of imagery at both study sites to determine to optimum spatial resolution for identifying and delineating vernal pools. One foot resolution image mosaics at each site were aggregated to simulate 2 ft, 4 ft, 8 ft, and 16 ft spatial resolutions. Nine interpreters visually identified apparent vernal pools beginning with the lowest resolution imagery and then with progressively higher sp

2010 Report on the Status of the Golden Eagle in the San Diego MSCP 2004-2010 report

Lead author: David Bittner
Golden Eagles are a top predator and, within the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan (SD MSCP) area, have territories of 20 to 30 square miles. They have survived by nesting in the most remote parts of the county where they are subject to minimal human disturbance. After 22 years of consistent monitoring and historical data research, we estimate that 32 pairs formerly occupied the San Diego MSCP. Today 11 pairs are still active, 3 are inactive, and 18 pairs have been extirpated. Most of these extirpations occurred in the last 40 years. The 11 breeding pairs of Golden Eagles remaining in the SD MSCP represent 24% of all the breeding Golden Eagles remaining in San Diego County. Seven of the 11 remaining active pairs within the SD MSCP are in serious jeopardy of being extirpated in the next 5 to 10 years. The 3 pairs considered inactive are predicted to become extirpated and may, in fact, already have been lost. As in 2005, WRI recommends the following for the SD MSCP: an annual survey of Golden Eagle breeding territories utilizing a cost-effective approach, using only properly trained and experienced observers for aerial monitoring from helicopters and ground surveys, where necessary; interpretation of the findings within the context of the long history of data that WRI has collected; and annual distribution of the monitoring results to all resource and planning agencies that have a "need to know" so that they may further protect nest sites. We also recommend the examination of proposed private and public land-use changes and human activities for their impact on the remaining Golden Eagles, maintenance of the Golden Eagle Database at WRI, and the consideration of selectively re-introducing (hacking) young eagles into areas where extirpation has occurred but the cause of extirpation has essentially been removed and suitable habitat still exists.

2006 County of San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program 2006 Annual Report report

This is the Ninth Annual Habitat Tracking Report for the County of San Diego?s Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) South County Subarea Plan (South County Subarea Plan). This report accounts for habitat loss and gain associated with development projects from January 1 through December 31, 2006 within the South County Subarea Plan. This report also includes a discussion of other land acquisitions, management and monitoring programs and funding sources that are utilized by the County to meet its MSCP implementation obligations. The MSCP South County Subarea Plan covers approximately 242,379 acres of land. The overall preservation goal of the County?s Subarea Plan is approximately 98,379 acres. From the inception of the South County MSCP Subarea Plan in 1998 through December 31, 2006, the County and its partners have achieved 66% of the conservation goal by conserving 65,149.41 acres of land through acquisition, dedication of easements and baseline preserve. In addition to the 65,149.4 acres already conserved to date, 12,246 acres of private baseline land were committed to be conserved through the South County MSCP Subarea Plan and will be dedicated in conformance with the Subarea Plan as development occurs. Upon conveyance of these private baseline lands, the County and its partners will have achieved 79% of the total conservation goal (not including future gains).

1997 Otay Valley Regional Park Concept Plan report

This Concept Plan is the result of a multi-jurisdictional planning effort in the Otay River Valley by the County of San Diego and the cities of Chula Vista and San Diego. Much of the land within the Concept Plan is privately owned and has development potential based on existing zoning, land use plans and other development regulations. The Concept Plan does not change existing zoning, land use plans or add new development regulations. It does not preclude private development. It provides policy direction for the jurisdictions for coordinated land acquisition and development for the Regional Park, within this framework of private property rights.

1998 County of San Diego MSCP 1998 Annual Report report

The County is required to account for the amount of habitat lost, and gained, on a yearly basis. The Subarea Plan covers approximately 252,248 acres of land. The overall preservation goal of the County?s subarea Plan is expect to cover approximately 101,268 acres of land. Prior to March 17, 1998, there were approximately 62,550.67 acres of preservation land that was included in the Subarea Plan. This land includes all land acquired within the Subarea either by the Federal, State or Local jurisdictions or land that was negotiated to be preserved by private landowners within the Lake Hodges and South County Segments.

2002 Calavera Hills Phase II Final Habitat Management Plan report

Introduction A. Background The Calavera Hills Phase II Habitat Preserve (Preserve) is a 144 acre open space set aside for permanent conservation by Calavera Hills II, LLC, the developer of Calavera Hills Phase II. This conservation area has been set aside as partial mitigation for impacts to natural habitat resulting from the approved Phase II development. The limits of the Preserve (Figure 1) have been approved by the City of Carlsbad, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) with the primary goal of protecting habitat of the federally listed coastal California gnatcatcher, as well as other listed species and other sensitive plant and wildlife species that are covered under the City of Carlsbad Habitat Management Plan (HMP). A varying number of gnatcatchers have been observed to occupy the preserve area in different yearly surveys. The site has been evaluated through the Calavera Hills Phase II Environmental Impact Report. It contains approximately 110 acres of coastal sage scrub (CSS), approximately 8 acres of southern mixed and chamise chaparral (SMC), approximately 16 acres of nonnative grasslands (NNG), 2 acres of eucalyptus woodland (EUC), and 8 acres of other vegetation types including disturbed and ruderal vegetation. Listed and sensitive animal and plant species also occupy the site. Pursuant to the requirements of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Biological Opinion dated March 14, 2002, Calavera Hills II, LLC is required to name and endow a public or private natural land management entity to manage the conserved area resources in perpetuity. The resource agencies and organizations have determined that setting lands aside and preventing development is not sufficient to preserve and protect biological integrity. Identifying the critical processes and elements that need protection, then planning, budgeting and funding for sustaining these processes and elements in perpetuity is the essence of long-term land protection. B. Purpose The purpose of this Habitat Management Plan is to establish the parameters for the permanent protection and management of the conservation area. The intent of this plan is to assure that the monitoring and management provides for the protection of vegetation within the area is protected from future disturbance in order that it can persist as viable California gnatcatcher nesting habitat and that the preserved area becomes biolo

1998 1998 MSCP Annual Public Workshop - Summary Report workshop summary

Lead author: Thomas Story
Within the reporting period (July 15, 1997 - December 31, 1998) 14,130 acres of habitat were conserved compared to a loss of 243 acres of habitat. Consistent with the design goals of the program, virtually all of the conserved habitat is located within the City?s Multiple Habitat Planning Area (MHPA) while most habitat loss occurred outside the MHPA. Acres lost represents the acreage impacted by development projects occurring within the reporting period. Acres conserved include lands conserved through mitigation for project -level impacts, lands conserved through exactions of private property during development entitlement process, acquired with public funds, or existing public lands dedicated as part of the City?s commitments under the MSCP.

1999 1999 MSCP Annual Public Workshop - Summary Report workshop summary

Lead author: Thomas Story
Within the reporting period (January 1, 1998 - December 31, 1998), 808 acres of habitat were conserved, compared to a loss of 156 acres of habitat (Table 1). Consistent with the design goals of the program, virtually all of the conserved habitat is located within the City?s MHPA, while the majority of habitat loss occurred outside the MHPA. Acres lost represents the acreage impacted by projects approved for construction within the reporting period. Acres conserved include: 131 acres conserved through mitigation for project-level impacts; 79 acres conserved through exactions of private property during the development entitlement process; and 598 acres acquired with public funds.