San Diego Management & Monitoring Program


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1979 The Natural History of Mexican Rattlesnakes book/conf proceeding

Lead author: Barry Armstrong
Beginning in November, 1966, studies on rattlesnakes (genera Crotalus and Sistrurus) and other pit vipers were initiated at the Dallas Zoo which included techniques for maintenance and disease treatments, in conjunction with observations on captive and wild populations. Maintenance techniques and disease treatments have been published in an earlier contribution. The results of our studies on the ecology and natural history of Mexican rattlesnakes are contained in the present account. Since numerous behavioral sequences were difficult to record in the field, many rattlesnakes were maintained in the laboratory. Over one hundred and twenty-five captive individuals, comprising over 50 taxa (including forms indigenous to the United States) were available for study. We have attempted to show the value of a multifaceted approach to the study of a body of organisms by beginning with field observations as a basis for understanding, followed by maintenance in the captive state whereupon specimens can be placed upon death in a systematic museum collection. This arrangement allows an investigator to examine various aspects of an animal's "being" by recording data which would be virtually impossible to record in the field. Further, this combined approach maximized our abilities as one of us is somewhat incompetent in the field and the other is an erratic animal keeper.

2012 San Diego PAF Score Workbook field notes/data sheets

Management level and scores for various invasive species in San Diego

2001 Wildlife responses to pedestrians and dogs journal article

Lead author: Scott Miller
As participation in outdoor recreational activities escalates, land managers struggleto develop managemeny policies that ensure coexistence of wildlife and recreation. However, this requires an understanding of how wildlife responds to various forms of recreational activities and the spatial context in which the activities occur. Therefore, we measured responses of 2 species of grassland sonbirds, one species of forest songbird, and mule deer( Odocoileus hemionus) exposed to a pedestriana, pedestrian accompanied by a dog on leash, and a dog alone (only for grassland birds) on and away from recreational trails. We assessed the "area of influence" for each treatment by determining the probability that an animal would flush or become alert (for mule deer only) given its perpendicular distance to a trail or a line of movement in areas without trails. When animals were disturbed, we measured flush distance (the distance between the disturbance and the animal when flushed), distance moved, and for mule deer, alert distance (the distance between the disturbance and the deer when it became alert). For all species,area of influence, flush distance, distance moved, and alert distance (for mule deer) was greater when activities occurred off-trail versus on-trail.Generally, among on-trail and off-trail treatments in grasslands for vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) and western meadowlark (S turnella neglecta), the smallest area of influence and shortest flush distance and distance moved resulted from the dog-alone treatment, and these responses were greater for the pedestrian-alone and dog-on-leash treatments. In forests, for A merican robins(Turdus migratorius), the area of influence, flush distance, and distance moved did not generally differ between the pedestrian-alone and dog-on-leash treatments. For mule deer, presence of a dog resulted in a greater area of influence, alert and flush distance, and distance moved than when a pedestrian was alone. Natural lands managers can implement spatial and behavioral restrictions in visitor management to reduce disturbance by recreational activities on wildlife. Restrictions on types of activities allowed in some areas such as prohibiting dogs or restricting use to trails will aid in minimizing disturbance. Additionally, managers can restrict the number and spatial arrangement of trails so that sensitive reas or habitats are avoided.

1988 Assessing impact of recreation on wildlife: a classification scheme journal article

Lead author: Gerri Pomerantz
Meeting public demand for wildlife recreation opportunities while avoiding undesirable impacts on wildlife and its habitat is a constant challenge for wildlife managers. The situation is complicated because recreational uses of wildlands may have multiple impacts. A recent survey of wildlife refuge managers and review of literature regarding impacts of consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists on wildlife (Weeden 1976; Wilkes 1977; Kirkpatrick 1978; Ittner et al. 1979; Boyle and Sampson 1983, 1985; Lee et al. 1984) indicate that a dichotomous classification of recreationists as consumptive or nonconsumptive does not address the types of impacts resulting from various uses of wildlife and implies that 1 class of activities has impacts on the resource and the other does not. Furthermore, this activity-based classification does not sufficiently aid managers' decisions about acceptable recreational uses of wildlands. Consequently, we developed a classification of impacts that recreational activities can have on wildlife that we believe provides a useful alternative framework for making decisions regarding permissibility of various recreational uses of wildlands. We have classified the negative impacts to wildlife that result from recreational activities on wildlands into 6 categories (Table 1). The impacts are generic and 1 type does not necessarily exclude another. For instance, a birdwatcher hiking through prime nesting habitat of the piping plover (Charadrius melodus) may cause stress to the bird, reducing use of preferred habitat, which ultimately results in lowered productivity. As another example, the obvious impact of hunting is direct mortality, but the activity might also result in reduced use of the hunted area by wildlife, an indirect impact. Alternatively, different recreational activities may produce the same impact. At issue is not whether the intended outcome of an activity is considered to be consumptive or nonconsumptive of wildlife, or even that wildlife is considered the focus of the activity, but whether the impact on wildlife is acceptable.

1999 Effects of recreational trails on wintering diurnal raptors along riparian corridors in a Colorado grassland journal article

Lead author: Robert Fletcher
Different types of human activity may influence raptors in various ways, potentially affecting their abundance, distribution, habitat use and productivity. We studied the effects of recreational trails on wintering raptor populations in grasslands of eastern Boulder County, Colorado, from December 1995-March 1996. We conducted strip transects to survey raptor populations at six study sites. All sites consisted of short and/or tallgrass prairie, and all contained a riparian corridor. Three sites contained recreational trails running adjacent to the riparian corridor (trail), while three sites contained no trails (control). Species richness, abundance and perch use were compared between control and trail sites. Species richness was consistently greater in control sites. Abundance of total raptors observed was greater in control sites. Abundance of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was greater in control sites, while abundance of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was similar for control and trail sites. Perching distances from riparian corridors were greater in trail sites than in control sites. In addition, raptors perched along riparian corridors more frequently in control sites. Results of this study suggest that recreational trails may have affected habitat selection of some raptor species in this grassland ecosystem.

International Conference on Ecology & Transportation (ICOET) 2001 Proceedings other

The rapid increase in animal-vehicle collisions on U.S. roadways is a growing concern in terms of human safety, property damage and injury costs, and viability of wildlife populations. Wildlife crossing structures are gaining national recognition by transportation agencies as effective measures to reduce animal-vehicle collisions and connect wildlife habitats across transportation corridors. In Virginia, white-tailed deer and black bear pose the highest risk. This 1-year study was conducted to monitor various underpass structures in Virginia to determine the structural and location attributes that make a crossing successful in terms of use by large mammals. The underpasses, most of which were not specifically designed as wildlife crossings, consist of box culverts and bridges of varying sizes. Remote cameras installed at seven underpass sites in Virginia have recorded more than 2,700 wildlife photographs and documented 1,107 white-tailed deer crossings in the most heavily used structures. Underpasses with a minimum height of 12 ft were successful at facilitating deer passage. Such structures were also heavily used by a variety of wildlife species, including coyote, red fox, raccoon, groundhog, and opossum. Structures with drainages that mimic natural waterways can encourage use by a diversity of terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and aquatic species. This report provides guidance in choosing cost-effective underpass design and location features that are necessary to consider to increase motorist safety and habitat connectivity. The findings also demonstrate that if only a minimal number of deer-vehicle collisions is prevented by an effective underpass, the savings in property damage alone can outweigh the construction costs of the structure.

2008 Response and Recovery of Plants and Animals to the 2003 San Diego County Wildfires other

Lead author: Carlton Rochester
Fire can have both negative and positive impacts on the flora and fauna of southern California. The native vegetation communities have evolved with the regional fire regime and have adapted various survival strategies in response. However, as firereturn intervals decrease to more frequent than historic levels, the trend is for shrublands, whether chaparral or coastal sage scrub, to be vegetation type-converted to grasslands. Just as fires alter the composition and structure of vegetation communities, animals may experience similar shifts in community structure and species occurrence. With the type-conversion of vegetation communities, we may expect a concomitant shift and potential biodiversity loss in faunal populations. Fire may cause direct mortality or loss of habitat and food resources that result in the decline of some species. Other species that survive the fire and prefer open or disturbed landscapes may benefit, thereby increasing in numbers. The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating how plant and animal communities are responding and recovering from the massive 2003 San Diego County wildfires. The taxa being investigated include plants, invertebrates (selected terrestrial macro-invertebrate taxa and ants) and vertebrates (reptiles, amphibians, small mammals, birds, bats, and carnivores). Investigations include comparisons of post-burn conditions to pre-burn baseline conditions and comparisons of responses of the various taxa between burned and unburned control sites based on available pre-burn data and data collected over the five-year study. The goal of this study is to provide scientifically based information to aid in land management planning and reserve design. These conservation and monitoring decisions should include considerations of the effects of large wildfires on structure and function of the biological community. Many of the species documented during these efforts are covered in the habitat conservation plan of San Diego, the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP).

2019 MSP 2019 Rare Plant IMG Field Form Instructions 3-19-19 protocol

To ensure consistency in data collection, the IMG protocol and associated data forms provide a standardized basis for documenting occurrence status and assessing habitat and threats for the various species. The SDMMP and partners developed the protocol and data forms based on recommendations from a comprehensive review of rare plant monitoring data collected from 1999 to 2009 under the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (McEachern et al. 2007, 2010a, b, Tracey et al. 2011).

2019 MSP 2019 Rare Plant IMG Field Form Instructions 3-19-19 protocol

To ensure consistency in data collection, the IMG protocol and associated data forms provide a standardized basis for documenting occurrence status and assessing habitat and threats for the various species. The SDMMP and partners developed the protocol and data forms based on recommendations from a comprehensive review of rare plant monitoring data collected from 1999 to 2009 under the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (McEachern et al. 2007, 2010a, b, Tracey et al. 2011).

2021 Survey Form Options Rare Plant IMG Surveys 2020.pdf protocol supplement

This document reviews the various options for collecting rare plant IMG data for 2021

2002 Results of the Quino Checkerspot Butterfly Survey at Various Locations within the International Fuel Break San Diego County, California report

Chambers Group, Inc. was retained by the Bureau of Land Managemenl (BLM), to conduct a habitat assessment and focused adult surveys to delermine the presence/absence of the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino), within three sections of ihe Intemational Fuel Break (fuel break). The total survey area encompesses approximately 438 acres in San Diego County, Califomia. Surveys are broken into three sites: Shockey, Truck trail, Tecate Peak, Otay Mountain fuel break. Of the three survey areas along the lntemational Fuel Break during the 2002 flight season, Quino checkerspot butterfly was only observed on the Otay Mountain portion of the fuel break. Although Shockey Truck Trail and Tecate Peak had suitable topographical features (hilltops and ridgelines, etc.), host plants, and nectar sources, the results of the focused surveys were negative at these two locations. Overall butterfly activity was moderate, with over 25 species of butterfly observed during the course of the 2002 surveys. The most detrimental activities to Quino include an increase in frequency of hand clearing and prescribed burns in areas along the fuel breaks that contain suitable topography and abundanl host plants and nectar sources.

2009 An Assessment of the Known and Potential Impacts of Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in and near San Diego County with Management Recommendations report

Summary: This report assesses potential impacts of feral pig populations in southern California (San Diego, Riverside, Imperial, and Orange counties) and Baja California, with an emphasis on San Diego County. We compiled information on the status of pigs in these areas from the literature and interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable about feral pig populations, including a population recently introduced into San Diego County. We also reviewed available information on the potential impacts of feral pigs on natural resources, water systems, agriculture, and human health, and discussed the feasibility of various control and eradication options. We developed population and habitat suitability models for feral pigs in San Diego County to examine the potential for numeric and geographic expansion following the recent introduction near El Capitan Reservoir. The models suggest that the population has the potential to grow rapidly and expand into large expanses of currently un-occupied habitat. Such expansion could harm natural biological resources, including riparian and oak woodland communities and numerous sensitive species. It is possible that populations could establish in such protected lands as Cuyamaca Rancho State Park and Volcan Mountain Preserve, as well as various wilderness areas. This could greatly diminish and possibly nullify large conservation investments already made in this region, including habitat restoration efforts. Finally, an expanding feral pig population in San Diego County could invade and cause grave damage in Baja California, where feral pig populations have not, to date, been reported. Although feral pigs in San Diego County have the potential to spread rapidly, the population is still relatively small and geographically confined. We therefore recommend initiating a pig eradication program as soon as possible. To be successful, however, an eradication program must be preceded by careful planning, coordination, and securing of funding commitments. These efforts should focus on meeting the following conditions (Parkes 1990): 1. There must be no refugia where active pig removal is not allowed. The entire population must be subject to management. 2. There must be no possibility of recolonization. Intentional reintroduction by humans must be prevented. 3. Sufficient funding must be available to maintain eradication activities at a scale and intensity that will remove animals faster than they reproduce. 4. Those attempting

2004 Wild Pigs Biology, Damage, Control Techniques and Management report

Lead author: I. Lehr Brisbin
The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. In an effort to better "know thy enemy," a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. This volume represents the collected synopsis that was the goal of the aforementioned symposium. This edited report contains papers representing some of the symposium's presentations, papers from researchers who were not able to attend the symposium, as well as several papers that were added to round out the volume to achieve the original symposium's intended scope. Collectively, this report presents a detailed source of information on the biology, damage, control techniques and management case studies on wild pigs in the United States.

2011 FINAL Baseline Biodiversity Survey for the San Luis Rey River Park report

The County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) prepared a master plan in 2007 outlining the creation of the San Luis Rey River Park (SLRRP) in northern San Diego County. Per the Park Implementation Process outlined in the SLRRP Master Plan, the County has acquired approximately 500 of the 1,700 acres planned for the SLRRP. DPR is proposing to manage the SLRRP in accordance with a resource management plan (RMP), including areaspecific management directives (ASMDs). Dudek conducted a baseline biodiversity study of the SLRRP parcels to provide DPR with current biological data needed to prepare an RMP. This report documents the methods and results of this study and provides various management recommendations for ASMDs to preserve and enhance the function of the SLRRP as biological open space in the context of the conservation goals and guidelines of the Draft North County Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Plan. Dudek biologists performed the following baseline biological surveys on the parcel additions from fall 2010 through spring 2011: vegetation mapping, focused botanical surveys, exotic species mapping, general butterfly surveys, herpetological pitfall trap surveys, aquatic amphibian surveys, avian point count surveys, bat surveys, small mammal trapping, and large and medium mammal surveys. Eight vegetation communities or land covers were identified on site, including southern cottonwood-willow riparian forest (including disturbed forms), disturbed habitat, non-native grassland, developed land, orchard, tamarisk scrub, agriculture, and Diegan coastal sage scrub. A total of 168 plant species were recorded within the study area during surveys. No special-status plant species were observed. A total of 166 wildlife species were observed or detected in the study area during surveys, including 3 fish, 4 amphibians, 10 reptiles, 63 birds, 31 mammals, and 55 invertebrates. Eighteen special-status wildlife species were observed or detected in the study area, including two species proposed for coverage under the Draft North County MSCP.

1993 Otay Ranch Mitigation Monitoring Program report

This mitigation monitoring program (herein referred to as the "Program") is based on the mitigation required to implement the Subregional Plan of the County Recommended Plan for OJay Ranch. The Otay Ranch Program Environmental Impact Report (EIR) (SCH #89010154, County #89-14-98) was certified and the General Development Plan approved by the County of San Diego Board of Supervisors on October 28, 1993. This Program is presented in tabular form to simplify verification of the various mitigation and monitoring actions. In some cases, mitigation measures have been summarized and additional detail may be found in the CEQA Findings of Fact. Therefore, reference must be made to the actual CEQA Findings of Fact when using the Program, and the CEQA Findings of Fact shall prevail where differences occur. The Program can be used both to verify implementation of the mitigation measures for the proposed project as well as to generate information on the effectiveness of the mitigation measures to guide future mitigation programs.

2011 Baseline Biodiversity Survey for the Pascoe, Helix-Lambron and Cielo Azul Parcel Additions to the Del Dios Highlands Preserve report

In 2009-10, the County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) acquired the Pascoe, Cielo Azul, and Helix-Lambron parcels as additions to the Del Dios Highlands Preserve (Preserve). The County manages the Preserve in accordance with an existing Resource Management Plan (RMP) including Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMDs). Dudek conducted a baseline biodiversity study of the parcel additions to provide DPR with current biological data needed to revise the existing Del Dios Highlands Preserve RMP to include the Pascoe, Cielo Azul and Helix-Lambron parcels. This report documents the methods and results of these surveys and provides various recommendations for ASMDs to preserve and enhance the function of the parcel additions as biological open space in the context of the existing Preserve RMP as well as the Draft North County Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Plan and South County MSCP. Dudek biologists performed the following baseline biological surveys on the parcel additions from fall 2010 through spring 2011: vegetation mapping, focused botanical surveys, exotic species mapping, general butterfly surveys, herpetological pitfall trap and coverboard surveys, aquatic amphibian surveys, avian point count surveys, bat surveys, small mammal trapping, and large and medium mammal surveys. Eight vegetation communities were identified on site including: Diegan coastal sage scrub, southern mixed chaparral, non-native grassland, southern coast live oak riparian woodland, southern willow scrub, coast live oak woodland, eucalyptus woodland, and disturbed habitat. A total of 136 plant species were recorded on the parcel additions during surveys. Four specialstatus plant species were observed, of which two are MSCP-covered species, and one of these, Encinitas baccharis (Baccharis vanessae), is federally and state listed. A total of 147 wildlife species were observed or detected on the parcel additions during surveys, including 4 amphibians, 13 reptiles, 73 birds, 35 mammals, and 22 invertebrates. Twenty-eight special-status wildlife species were observed or detected on the Preserve, including 13 MSCP-covered species.

2005 Bat Inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program Area in San Diego County, California, 2002-2004 report

Lead author: Drew Stokes
We conducted a bat species inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) area in San Diego County, California. The study began in the early summer of 2002 and terminated in the winter of 2003. We used a variety of bat survey techniques including ultrasonic bat detectors, mist-nets, hand-nets, unaided ears (audible), and spotlights to document both foraging and roosting bats within and immediately adjacent to the Multi-Habitat Preserve area. We conducted a total of 80 surveys at 27 foraging bat sites and 28 surveys of 18 potential bat roosting sites. We detected 16 bat species including five species of local concern at various sites within the study area during both foraging and roosting bat surveys. Other information provided by this study includes demographics, reproductive states, and injuries of captured bats, seasonal activity and richness patterns of bats in the study area, watershed associations of bats in the study area, and detection success of the various bat survey techniques used. We present specific recommendations for bat management and long-term monitoring strategies.

2003 Sampling Design Optimization and Establishment of Baselines for Herpetofauna Arrays at the Point Loma Ecological Reserve report

Lead author: Andrea Atkinson
Only 12 of the original 19 species thought to be present at Point Loma Ecological Reserve were detected during pitfall trap sampling from 1995-2001 (see Table14) and only 11 during the actual time period used in this analysis (1996-2000). Monitoring for declines in species still present at Point Loma is necessary to provide information for timely management intervention. Striped racer captures and number of species detected per array declined from 1996 to 2000. While striped racer declines could be caused by the snakes learning to avoid the traps, the decline is a concern and should be monitored. Declines in the number of juvenile striped racers would be especially important to track, since they will not yet have learned to avoid the traps. The following recommendations are made for refining monitoring for herpetofauna using pitfall trap arrays at Point Loma Ecological Reserve at Point Loma, California. Refinements should provide some reduction in sampling effort while maintaining an ability to detect approximately a 20% drop in the number of species detected per array, a 40-50% drop in orange-throated whiptail (Cnemidophorus hyperythrus) capture rates, and an ability to continue monitoring trends in striped racer (Masticophis lateralis), ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus), and southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), which were variables requested by the reserve manager. - The number of sampling days per year could be reduced from 50 to 40. - Only arrays #6 and #12 should be discontinued. - Control limits were calculated for the various response variables (see Table 15 for a summary of all control limits). - The 40 sampling days per year could be distributed across five 8-day sampling periods (similar to the original design of five 10-day sample periods) or alternatively across ten 4-day sampling periods with little effect on the results, provided they occur at approximately the same time during the year as the baseline data. This should allow work to be scheduled within a single work-week. - If further reductions in sampling are required due to budget considerations, sampling the 15 arrays every other year is preferred to reducing the number of arrays sampled. In addition, it may be possible to reduce sampling in the January-February sampling period to only 4 days if tracking declines in salamanders is not a concern. Sampling in January- February should be timed after rain events to maximize detection of salamande

2002 Summary of Monitoring Results for Cylindropuntia californica var. californica report

Snake cholla (Cylindropuntia californica var. californica) is a federally listed Species of Concern that is found on arid coastal slopes in southern San Diego County. Monitoring for this plant was conducted during April 2002 at various locations. The goal of the effort was to establish baseline data for long-term monitoring of snake cholla under the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP).

2008 Habitat Management Plan for the Kelly Ranch Habitat Conservation Area (2008 -2013) report

Lead author: Patrick McConnell
INTRODUCTION A. Purpose of Inclusion of the Preserve in Carlsbad Habitat Management Plan The City of Carlsbad has an obligation to protect and enhance wildlife values under their sub-area Habitat Management Plan (HMP) and implementing agreement (City of Carlsbad, 2004). As part of the development permits of the Kelly Ranch Development in Carlsbad, California, Kelly Land Company was required to secure and endow a natural land management organization to manage the site's natural open space in perpetuity. Kelly Land Company received development permits from various governmental organizations, including the California Coastal Commission (CCC, 2001), City of Carlsbad (Planning Commission, 2001), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS, 2000), which stipulate conservation requirements and any future alterations to the natural open space areas. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), and other organizations, maintain that merely setting lands aside and preventing development is not sufficient to preserve and protect biological integrity. Identifying the critical ecological processes and elements that need protection, then planning, budgeting and funding for sustaining these processes and elements in perpetuity, is the essence of long-term land protection. The Center for Natural Lands Management (CNLM or Center) accepted management responsibility for the Kelly Ranch Habitat Conservation Area (HCA or Preserve) through a Management and Funding Agreement dated November 15, 2001. To further protect the conservation values on the Preserve, and to provide for third-party beneficiaries, a conservation easement (CE) in favor of CNLM was also conveyed. On February 1, 2002, both roles—that of Preserve management and CE compliance monitoring—were funded through an endowment. B. Kelly Ranch Habitat Conservation Area Background The Preserve was set aside to protect some of the last remaining stands of habitat left in Carlsbad, and to create additional open space to connect adjacent dedicated open space in the vicinity, such as Macario Canyon to the south and Batiquitos Lagoon to the west. The limits of the HCA (Figures 1 and 2) have been approved by the USFWS and the CDFG with the primary goal of protecting habitat of the federally listed coastal California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californica), as well as other sensitive plant and wildlife species, and sensitive veget

1993 Otay Ranch Mitigation Monitoring Program report

This mitigation monitoring program (herein referred to as the "Program") is based on the mitigation required to implement the Subregional Plan of the County Recommended Plan for OJay Ranch. The Otay Ranch Program Environmental Impact Report (EIR) (SCH #89010154, County #89-14-98) was certified and the General Development Plan approved by the County of San Diego Board of Supervisors on October 28, 1993. This Program is presented in tabular form to simplify verification of the various mitigation and monitoring actions. In some cases, mitigation measures have been summarized and additional detail may be found in the CEQA Findings of Fact. Therefore, reference must be made to the actual CEQA Findings of Fact when using the Program, and the CEQA Findings of Fact shall prevail where differences occur. The Program can be used both to verify implementation of the mitigation measures for the proposed project as well as to generate information on the effectiveness of the mitigation measures to guide future mitigation programs.

2010 Final Baseline Biodiversity Survey for the Simon Preserve report

The Simon Preserve (Preserve) consists of approximately 617 acres in unincorporated San Diego County. Dudek biologists performed the following baseline biological surveys from spring through fall 2009: vegetation mapping, focused botanical surveys, exotic species mapping, general butterfly surveys, herpetological pitfall trap surveys, avian point count surveys, bat surveys, small mammal trapping, and large and medium mammal surveys. This report documents the methods and results of these surveys, and provides various management recommendations to preserve and enhance the function of the Preserve as biological open space in the context of the regional conservation goals of the draft North County Multiple Species Conservation Plan (North County MSCP). The County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) proposes to manage the Preserve in accordance with a Resource Management Plan (RMP) including Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) that will be prepared based upon the baseline biological survey information established in this report. Based on species composition and general physiognomy, a total of 15 native or naturalized plant communities, including disturbed forms and mixed vegetation types, were identified on site: Diegan coastal sage scrub, disturbed Diegan coastal sage scrub, chamise chaparral, coastal sage scrub-southern mixed chaparral, disturbed coastal sage scrub-southern mixed chaparral, southern mixed chaparral, non-native grassland, southern coast live oak riparian woodland, southern cottonwood-willow riparian forest, southern riparian woodland, southern willow scrub, arrowweed scrub, coast live oak woodland, open Engelmann oak woodland, and eucalyptus woodland. In addition, disturbed habitat, developed land, and orchard land covers were identified. A total of 203 vascular plant species were recorded on the Preserve during surveys. Four specialstatus plant species were observed, of which three are covered under the North County MSCP, and one, San Diego thorn-mint (Acanthomintha ilicifolia), is federally and state listed. A total of 93 wildlife species were observed or detected on the Preserve during surveys, including 8 reptiles, 52 birds, 16 mammals, and 17 invertebrates. Seventeen special-status wildlife species were observed or detected on the Preserve, including five species covered under the North County MSCP.

2014 Wildlife Response to Human Recreation on NCCP Reserves in San Diego County report

Lead author: Sarah Reed
Adaptive land protection and management strategies are fundamental to accomplishing the stated species and habitat conservation goals of federal Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) and California Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP) efforts. In San Diego County, the current NCCP reserve system includes more than 200,000 acres of protected lands, which are monitored and managed by multiple jurisdictions. The Wildlife Agencies (FWS and DFW, collectively), environmental groups, and reserve managers would like an improved understanding of how various threats and stressors may be affecting reserve performance for the benefit of 103 plant and animal species. The intent of this applied research project was to complement the existing species and habitat monitoring efforts in San Diego County by developing a program to assess the possible effects of human recreation on wildlife populations. Specific objectives were to: (1) Develop recommendations for a research for studying the effects of recreation on wildlife species; and (2) Test methods for monitoring recreation and complete a pilot field study.

2010 Prioritization and Coordination of Regional and Local (preserve) Monitoring: ­Group1 Final Report report

Lead author: Dave Mayer
How do we ensure that the San Diego Regional Preserve System is effectively managed across jurisdictional boundaries and ecologicalscales? Is it possible to monitor at the reserve level and integrate these efforts so they are meaningful for the preserve system and ecoregion?This paper addresses different approaches to monitoring, how monitoring protocols can address ecological variability at different spatial scales, and how the results of the monitoring could answer questions across time. It is essential to focus on collecting biologically meaningfuldata that can be utilized to inform management actions at various scales. The primary focus of monitoring efforts must be to informmanagement actions and secondarily to meet regulatory requirements. In some cases, both goals may be achieved with the same data. This prioritization will help ensure that available resources are allocated for actions that benefit the covered species and the ecosystems on whichthey depend rather than utilizing limited monitoring resources to collect data primarily to allow agencies and jurisdictions to check‐off regulatoryrequirement.

2008 South Coast Missing Linkages: A Wildland Network for the South Coast Ecoregion report


2011 Baseline Biodiversity Survey for the Escondido Creek Preserve report

Dudek conducted a baseline biodiversity study of the Escondido Creek Preserve (Preserve) to provide the County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) with current baseline biological data and information needed to develop a Resource Management Plan (RMP), including Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMDs), for the Preserve. The Preserve is located in the Elfin Forest community of unincorporated San Diego County and is owned and managed by DPR. This report documents the methods and results of this study, and provides various management recommendations for AMSDs to preserve and enhance the function of the Preserve as biological open space in the context of the conservation goals and guidelines of the Draft North County Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Plan. Dudek biologists performed the following baseline biological surveys on the Preserve from summer 2010 through spring 2011: vegetation mapping, focused botanical surveys, exotic species mapping, general butterfly surveys, herpetological pitfall trap surveys, avian point count surveys, bat surveys, small mammal trapping, and large and medium mammal surveys. Thirteen vegetation communities and land cover types were identified on site including: Diegan coastal sage scrub, eucalyptus woodland, non-native grassland, southern coast live oak riparian forest, southern mixed chaparral, southern willow scrub, coast live oak woodland, southern riparian woodland, valley needlegrass grassland, non-native vegetation, disturbed habitat, developed land, and orchard. A total of 184 plant species were recorded on the Preserve during the surveys. Six special-status plant species were observed, of which two are North County MSCP-covered species. A total of 145 wildlife species were observed or detected on the Preserve during the surveys, including 4 amphibians, 12 reptiles, 83 birds, 31 mammals, and 15 butterflies. Twenty-nine special-status wildlife species were observed or detected on the Preserve, including nine North County MSCP covered species.

2010 Final Baseline Biodiversity Survey for the Simon Preserve report

The Simon Preserve (Preserve) consists of approximately 617 acres1 in unincorporated San Diego County. Dudek biologists performed the following baseline biological surveys from spring through fall 2009: vegetation mapping, focused botanical surveys, exotic species mapping, general butterfly surveys, herpetological pitfall trap surveys, avian point count surveys, bat surveys, small mammal trapping, and large and medium mammal surveys. This report documents the methods and results of these surveys, and provides various management recommendations to preserve and enhance the function of the Preserve as biological open space in the context of the regional conservation goals of the draft North County Multiple Species Conservation Plan (North County MSCP). The County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) proposes to manage the Preserve in accordance with a Resource Management Plan (RMP) including Area-Specific Management Directives (ASMDs) that will be prepared based upon the baseline biological survey information established in this report.