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1999 Effects of recreational trails on wintering diurnal raptors along riparian corridors in a Colorado grassland journal article

Lead author: Robert Fletcher
Different types of human activity may influence raptors in various ways, potentially affecting their abundance, distribution, habitat use and productivity. We studied the effects of recreational trails on wintering raptor populations in grasslands of eastern Boulder County, Colorado, from December 1995-March 1996. We conducted strip transects to survey raptor populations at six study sites. All sites consisted of short and/or tallgrass prairie, and all contained a riparian corridor. Three sites contained recreational trails running adjacent to the riparian corridor (trail), while three sites contained no trails (control). Species richness, abundance and perch use were compared between control and trail sites. Species richness was consistently greater in control sites. Abundance of total raptors observed was greater in control sites. Abundance of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was greater in control sites, while abundance of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was similar for control and trail sites. Perching distances from riparian corridors were greater in trail sites than in control sites. In addition, raptors perched along riparian corridors more frequently in control sites. Results of this study suggest that recreational trails may have affected habitat selection of some raptor species in this grassland ecosystem.

2009 Federal Register: Eagle Permits; Take Necessary To Protect Interests in Particular Localities; Final Rules other

In conjunction with release of a final environmental assessment of this action, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (??we?? or ??the Service??) is finalizing permit regulations to authorize limited take of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (Eagle Act), where the take to be authorized is associated with otherwise lawful activities. These regulations also establish permit provisions for intentional take of eagle nests under particular, limited circumstances.

2005 Final Report - NCCP/MSCP Raptor Monitoring Project (January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2003) report


2014 Appendices- Ramona Grassland Project Raptor Survey 2014 Summary report


2014 Ramona Grasslands Preserves Raptor Surveys Summary Report report

A 3-year raptor study was initiated by the County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) to collect baseline information on eagle and other raptor activity at the Preserve. Raptor foraging surveys and golden eagle nest monitoring was conducted by AECOM at the Preserve from September 2013 through August 2014 on behalf of the County DPR. AECOM worked in partnership with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to complete these surveys. This report summarizes the results of Year 1 (September 2013 through August 2014) of the 3-year study. AECOM will continue surveys for Year 2 and Year 3.