San Diego Management & Monitoring Program


ARROYO SOUTHWESTERN TOAD (Bufo microscaphus caiWornicus) RECOVERY PLAN

Type: report

Article abstract: Current Status: The arroyo southwestern toad (Bufo microscaphus caiWornicus) is listed as endangered. In California, it is known from 22 river basins in the coastal and desert areas of9 counties along the central and southern coast. The range extends into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Habitat Requirements and Limiting Factors: The arroyo southwestern toad (arroyo toad) is endemic to primarily the coastal plain and mountains of central and southern California and northwestern Baja California. These toads breed in stream channels and use stream terraces and surrounding uplands for foraging and wintering. Direct habitat loss due to urbanization, agriculture, and dam construction is the main cause for the decline ofarroyo toads. Other threats include water management activities and diversions; road construction, maintenance, and use; livestock grazing; mining; recreational activities; loss of habitat due to exotic plants; and predation by introduced species. Although the species evolved and has survived in an environment periodically impacted by fire, flood, and drought, the interactions ofnatural events with human alterations ofthe habitat may lead to the extirpation of local populations ormetapopulations ~. Recovery Priority: 9 on a scale of 1 to 18. The priority is based on its being a subspecies (rather than a full species) with a moderate degree ofthreat and high recovery potential. If the arroyo toad is made a full species, its priority rises to 8. Recovery Objectives: Downlist to threatened status, then delist. Recoverv Criteria : Downlisting to threatened status: The arroyo toad will be considered for reclassification from endangered to threatened status when management plans have been approved and implemented on federally managed lands to provide for conserving, maintaining, and restoring the riparian and upland habitats used by arroyo toads for breeding, foraging, and wintering habitat. In addition, these measures must maintain at least 20 self-sustaining metapopulations or subpopulations ofarroyo toads at the following locations (minimum number of populations for each agency and targeted river basins is indicated in parentheses): Fort Hunter Liggett Army Reserve Training Center (1: San Antonio River basin); Marine Corps Base Camp Joseph H. Pendleton (2: San Mateo/San Onofre Creek basins, Santa Margarita River basin); Los Padres National Forest (4: Sisquoc River basin, Upper Santa Ynez River basin [including In

Number of pages: 128

Day: 24

Month: July

Year: 1999

Publisher: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Prepared by: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service;

Keywords: arroyo toad;

Species: Arroyo toad