San Diego Management & Monitoring Program


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Orcutt's brodiaea Brodiaea orcuttii

Goal: Maintain or enhance existing Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences to ensure multiple conserved occurrences with self sustaining populations to increase resilience to environmental and demographic stochasticity, maintain genetic diversity, and ensure persistence over the long term (>100 years) in chaparral, grassland, oak woodland, southern interior cypress forests, and vernal pool vegetation communities.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO View map

MON-IMP-IMG BROORC-1

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO View map

MGT-IMP-IMG BROORC-2

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. available for implementation Otay Mesa Rare Plants
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation Otay Mesa Rare Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2019 SO View map

MON-SURV-SPEC BROORC-3

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8

In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO View map

MGT-IMP-IEX BROORC-4

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct invasive plant control and distribute seed to establish new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences. in progress
IMP-2 Implement seed augmentation using seed collected and bulked by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research. in progress
IMP-3 Submit project metadata, management datasets and report to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, 2 New Occurrences of Orcutt's Brodiaea Established and Report Submitted 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2020 SO View map

MGT-PRP-SBPL BROORC-5

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Design the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO View map

MGT-IMP-SBPL BROORC-6

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt's brodiaea from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SO View map

MGT-PRP-MGTPL BROORC-7

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's brodiaea that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO View map

MGT-IMP-MGTPL BROORC-8

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO View map

MON-IMP-MGTPL BROORC-9

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.