Only two natural populations: the mainland population in and around Torrey Pines State Reserve (TPSR) and Santa Rosa Island population off the coast of southern California .
Known Populations in San Diego County
There are 176 acres of Torrey pine forest in the MSPA in MUs 6 and 7, of which 171 acres are conserved. There is 1 acre in MU6 that is not conserved and there are 175 acres in MU7 (171 acres conserved).
Sandstone habitats in closed-cone coniferous forest and chaparral . Elevation range is 30-160 meters. Dependent on daily fog from the ocean in the afternoon .
Taxonomy and genetics
Pinaceae family .
Life history demography
Perennial evergreen tree . In 2006, the population was 5,394 with an age structure of of 71% adults, 16% sub-adults, 8% saplings, and 5% seedlings . A large, mature tree population, with infrequent seedlings and saplings [6; cited in 1]. Stand population varies between stands due to patchy juvenile recruitment . Stand age will likely increase, given the past rate of seedling establishment and survival [7; cited in 1].
Cones are pollinated from January to March. Reach maturity in the summer two and a half years after pollination. Seed dispersal begins in September after cone-ripening .
Pollination seed dispersal
Obligate seeder . Facultative seral species. Infrequent fire may enhance regeneration due to substantial seed drop following a crown fire [9, 6; both cited in 1]. Seedling establishment increases with fire , due in part to the serotinous cones and delayed seed dispersal [5, 9; both cited in 1]. Vestigial wings make the seeds unlikely to disperse far from the parent tree (less than 4 meters) .
Alteration of fire regimes, drought, climate change, air pollution, invasive plants, and human disturbance . Encroaching urbanizing outside of TPSR . Fragmented and declining population is vulnerable to perturbations.
The IUCN recommends growing Torrey pines more widely as an ex situ backup population .
Torrey pine sources
 Esser, L. L. 1993. “Index of Species Information: Pinus Torreyana.” Fire Effects Information System. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pintor/all.html.
 California Native Plant Society. (2016). Pinus torreyana. Retrieved December 11, 2016, from http://www.rareplants.cnps.org/detail/1379.html
 Sproul, F., T. Keeler-Wolf, P. Gordon-Reedy, J. Dunn, A. Klein, and K. Harper. 2011. Vegetation Classification Manual for Western San Diego County. First Edit. San Diego, CA.
 Farjon, A. (2013). Pinus torreyana. Retrieved December 11, 2016, from http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42424/0
 Evarts, B. 1986. “Torrey Pines: Resurrection or Remission.” Environment Southwest 514: 3–8.
 Zedler, P. H., Gerald Schneid, and Carla Scheidlinger. 1987. “Fire in the Ecology and Management of Torrey Pine (California).” Restoration & Management Notes 5 (2): 88–89.
 McMaster, G. 1982. “Fire in the Ecology and Management of Torrey Pine (Pinus Torreyana) Populations.” In Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems, edited by Conrad Eugene and Walter C. Oechel. San Diego, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 Esser, L. L. 1993. “Index of Species Information: Pinus Torreyana.” Fire Effects Information System.
 McMaster, G. S. 1980. “Patterns of Reproduction in Torrey Pine (Pinus Torreyana).” San Diego State University.
 Johnson, M., S. B. Vander Wall, and M. Borchert. 2003. “A Comparative Analysis of Seed and Cone Characteristics and Seed-Dispersal Strategies of Three Pines in the Subsection Sabinianae.” Plant Ecology 168: 69–84. doi:10.1023/A:1024470224134.
 Remeika, P. 1976. “Torrey Pines.” Environment Southwest 475: 10–12.